2018/02/26

早稲田 人間科学部の英語 (2018)

以下に記した英文の全体ないしは一部および単語は、早稲田大学人間科学部の最近10年分の一般入試出題から、特に「これは重要」と考えられるものを列記したもの。
(なお、主要な英文誌の掲載コラムなどから鑑みて特殊性が高いと思われるものは含みません。)
来春の入試本番に際して、自分がどの範疇の表現・語彙に強いのか、あるいは弱いのか、現時点での学力チェックシートのつもりで、辞書を用いずにどれだけ訳せるか試してみましょう。
さあ、頑張りましょう。


【 2018-I 】
例年通り、短い文面の記事コラム (i) - (viii) の8本が別個に出題されている。いずれのテキストにても、接続詞や副詞が少なめに抑えられており、しかもなまじっか文章量が少ないがゆえに、主題と補説と仮説がやや峻別しにくい。それでも時制の差異は重要なヒントたりうる。以上の理由から、とにかく速読につとめ一気に全貌捕捉すること。あわせて、見慣れぬ単語にあたっても全貌を読みぬけるだけの理科/社会科の知識量は必須である。品詞分解などと愚鈍な文法遊戯にうつつを抜かさぬように。

(i)  ネットビジネスとセキュリティのテクニカルな相克について紹介する、なかなかの良問だ。本問で引用されるCNBC社(ちなみに実在するニュースメディア)による論説は、利用者パスワードが「既にハッキングされた」との報告か、「されうる」とのリスク喚起であるのか、必ず見極めること。
  • CNBC had the best of intentions when it ran an online feature on password security recently.
  • The article itself is a perfectly competent explanation of how passwords can be brute forced.  (ここでの "brute force" はセキュリティ分野における汎用語であり、高校生が知っていてもおかしくない。)
  • After a password was submitted in the (password testing) widget, CNBC's page would copy it to a Google Docs spreadsheet for ranking.  ("widget"は日本語でいうウィジェットでやや汎用語である。それよりここにとつぜん Google が出てくるが、CNBCのサイトページが何をしているのか、また末尾の "ranking" は誰によるいかなる処理かを推察必須である。)
  • Advertisers and analytics firms, of which there were more than 30 on that (CNBC's) page, all had access to the (password) data from that password widget.  (本箇所も上同様に、どこの誰が何をしてしまったのかを推察要。ヒントはやはりGoogleである。)
  • The article has been taken down, so no more unsuspecting users will give away their passwords.
  • goldmine for malicious hackers
  • article on Online Security Backfires (設問箇所にあるこの"backfire" はしばらく前にインテリが使いまわしていた語で、バカも杓子もバックファイアーなどと嘲笑されていた。ともあれ汎用概念でもある。)
(ii) "wind turbine"が何のための装置であるか、さらに何が"conventional"型turbineで何が新型turbineであるかを取り違えぬように。また設問6は新型turbineのsetsがどう配置されているかを問うている。
  • vertical-axis wind turbines - which spin around a central axis like a top (この"top"は栓のようなもの)
  • horizontal-axis turbine
  • clusters of vertical-axis turbines, (which are) arranged to take advantage of each other's turbulence, can outperform conventional wind farms  ("turbulence" はもちろん"turbine"の直接の派生語ではない。また、末尾の"farms"についてはエネファームくらい聞いたことあるだろ。)
  • "Conventional horizontal-axis turbines are spaced far apart, and the wind that passes between them ... is "wasted energy".
(iii)  
  • early beginnings of extraterrestrial life (理科の基本概念、単語から意味を類推必須。)
  • an ultracool dwarf star (これも理科の基本だ、星の種類くらい知ってんだろ。)
  • a discovery that bodes well for plant hunters scouring the galaxy for small, rocky planets  ("bode"は受験英語では難語の部類だが実社会ではバカでも使う汎用語の一つで、~を期待させるの意。)
  • "This is a brand new planetary population that is revealed, and it could well dominate the total number of planets in the Milky Way".  (ここでの "dominate"の意味が分からなかったらたぶん不合格だと思うよ。)
  • formation of Earth-sized planets
  • Most of the light it (the host star) emits is in the infrared. ("infrared" も理科のド基礎だ、というより日常語でもある。)

(iv) 本問は、木材をビルの建材として活用することがどうして"renewable resource" であり、何故に"benefit"たりうるのか、その論法が不明瞭である。悪問だ。
  • The fundamental premise is that timber and other natural materials are vastly underused and we don't give them nearly enough credit.  (末尾の"credit"は毎年のように問われる超重要概念である。)
(v)
  • first-of its-kind "tailless comet"
  • rocky materials
  • ice and other frozen compounds
  • The newly-found comet was formed in the same region as Earth, then was slung to the solar system's outer reaches as planets jostled for position.  ("jostle"は弾き合うの意だが、知らずとも本文面の主旨は一読で理解必須。"solar system" や "outer reaches" から全体図を想定出来ぬのなら、理科の基本素養が無いのだから早稲田なんか受けるのやめなさい。)
(vi)  易し過ぎる。略。

(vii)  
  • a sustainably-designed 17,000-square-foot campus facility (that is) designed to provide its own energy and water
  • receive Living Building Certification as a net-zero energy, waste and water buiding
  • hazardous chemicals such as asbestos, ... lead, mercury, and polyvinyl chloride
  • The building is outfitted with composing toilets, solar panels, rainwater, collection, and wastewater treatment systems.

(viii) シックハウス症候群についての警告的エッセイ。
  • pollutants such as formaldehyde(アルデヒド), pesticides and cleaning compounds
  • reverse the adverse effects
  • air contaminants
  • odors/chemical vapors (chlorine, cleaning supplies and paint)
  • chronic respiratory illness




【 2017-I 】 
(i)  最初から良素材の英文。主題の"allergy" は何か、そして "allergic" とは何のどういう性質か?主体・客体を総括した理数的な表現に留意方、よって、文法分析ではなく直観による帰納力が問われる
  • veterinary internist (獣医の語は文脈から類推可か)
  • itchy eyes, runny noses, sneezing, hives, and rashes
  • When cats interact with an allergen, their body sends immunoglobulin E antibodies to link with it ... . ("immuno ---  E は特定物質の名称。"antibodies" は必須語。)
  • In rare cases, cats can even be allergic to people. People allergies are uncommon, since we bath more often than most species and don't shed as much hair and dead skin - which trigger our own allergies to pets. (サァ、ここだ。この文脈における "people allergies" とは何の何に対する allergies なのか?さらに "which" 以降は何を意味しているのか?ここら即座に閃く理数的センスがあればきっと本問は全部了察出来るが、一方で表現技法上の分析に陥ってしまったら正解はおぼつかない。)
  • residue from our perfume, soap, or laundry detergent
  • Any water-based cleaning product usually contains some preservatives.
  • Specific chemical allergies are difficult to isolate and diagnose, so pets can't be vaccinated for them ... .
  • organic allergies
  • Cats can even be allergic to other pets. Veterinarians offer antihistamines for dogs to treat cat, horse, and bird allergies. ("antihistamines" は抗ヒスタミン剤。さて本箇所も文意全体から何のために何をどうするのか関係を閃きたい。とくに、この薬剤は「猫と馬と鳥からくる "allergies" を治療」するためのものであるが、さてその治療対象である動物は何か?)

(ii)

  • total-immersion language summer camp
  • Bilingualism ... can be a leg up for college admission and job hunting.
  • rationale
  • Command of two or more languages bolsters the ability to focus in the face of distraction ... .
  • the exact mechanism by which bilingualism boosts brain development
  • an extra stash of mental acuity (鋭敏性) or a "cognitive reserve"

(iii)  音響(情報)制御のための電子素子について、技術コンセプト。

  • Reflecting, suppressing, and otherwise manipulating sound isn't as simple as it might seem.
  • the first tunable, acoustic diode 
  • Composed of a structured arrangement of elastic spheres, the diode can be tuned ... to downshift the frequencies moving through the (soundproofing) material to lower frequencies as needed. (本箇所などは図案無しにイメージしながら読み抜くのはやや難しいが、そこをなんとか大意から…)
  • dispersion
  • The (soundproofing) material could be used to harvest energy from sound waves. (この派生的な効用が面白い。)


(iv)
  • The Pluto (冥王星) is downgraded to "dwarf planet".
  • lunar rock, part of the moon's crust
  • geochemist (語感から類推したい)
  • a big deal
  • a done deal
  • I am running a lunar sample on the mass spectrometer as we speak. (重要ではないが、この "as we speak" は 「我々がこうして物を言いつつも」、つまりこうしている間にも、くらいの意味。)
  • paradigm-shifting discoveries
  • celestial movements
(v)
  • Peter's company ... has put freeze-dried locusts (イナゴ) and mealworms (食用の幼虫) on the shelves at the 24 outlets of Sligro, the Dutch food wholesaler.
  • embrace bugs as an eco-friendly alternative to conventional meat
  • Crickets convert feed to body mass about twice as efficiently as pigs and five times as efficiently as cattle.
  • edible mass
(vi)  オンライン教育論、易しそうにみえて速読厳禁の良問だ。規制、標準化、営利や非営利という論理について、先入観に捉われず慎重に追う必要あり。
  • Online education ... will have a significant ripple effect on colleges and universities of all sizes in coming years - but only if it's subject to regulation, governed by a common set of accreditation standards ... . ("ripple effect" 物理学の基本用語、ただし知らなくても文脈理解に支障無い。問題は "subject to regulation" や "standards"で、通常の技術自由化についての先入観に反した論旨となっており、ちょっと戸惑わせる。)
  • traditional face-to-face model of instruction
  • Citing the vast online enrollment gains made by for-profit institutions ... , Louis Soarres recently dubbed online education a potential "disruptive innovator".  ("for-profit" は "nonprofit"の対置理念である。動詞 "dub" は汎用語として知っておきたい。"disruptive innovator" は経済産業界では常識タームだが、語義からだけでも意味を考えてみたい。)
  • If you take that for-profit energy out of higher education, online education wouldn't have grown the way it has in the last 10 years. (ここの "that for-profit energy" が何の何に対する活力を指しているか分かれば、この仮定法表現の論旨も明確になる。)

(vii)  ビジネス英語で書かれ、誰が何やってるのか
主体と客体をまとめた表現となっている。(上の (i) や (iii) 同様に)ここも知識から文意を帰納していきたい。とくに "tax" と "charge" の関わりを間違えぬよう。

  • New Yokers now pay for their garbage collection through local taxes and are charged the same thing no matter how much trash they generate.
  • Cities like San Francisco charge residents for trash collection according to the container - $21.21 a month for the weekly pickup of trash from a 20-gallon cart, $55.10 for a 64-gallon container and up to $82.65 for the 96-gallon version ... . (この下線部が何に対するどういう課金であるか正確につかみたい。とくに末尾の "version" は何をさすか?)
  • recycleables or compost
  • abundance of apaartment buildings
  • single-family dwellings
  • economic incentives
  • pay-as-you-throw (この "pay as ... ) は典型的なビジネス表現、しかし汎用的でもある。)
  • the actual disposal cost

(viii) 易し過ぎるので省略。




  【 2016-I 】
昨年と同様、名詞知識がモノをいう理系タイプの英文がわんさか。それでいて(理工学部同様に)図表が一枚も付けられていない厳しさ。ともあれ理系の着想にては名詞と動詞の厳格な区別など無い、だから文法分析など愚の骨頂。さて今回は、想像力の強化には(iii) (iv) (viii)が、また分析力強化には (vi) がおすすめ。特殊な難語は減ったが、さり気ない代名詞でも確実に何かを指している、よって読み飛ばさないこと。

(i)

  • productive adults in the face of technology's grip
  • nonprofit
  • psychotherapist
  • provide an anchor to counter the barrage of information and manipulation (この "barrage" がヒッカケの難語、とはいえ、 "anchor" が "counter" する対象であると想定すればよし。)
  • tech savvy
  • Teen postings (to cyberspace) are public and have an infinite lifespan. (この "teen posting" などは名詞直列による表現の典型、誰が何しているのか知識から判断要。文法分析など無駄。)
(ii)
易しい、特記事項ナシ

(iii)

ちょっと面白い科学論、地球の高温化が異種間の自然交配を促進するという。
  • purebred dogs
  • facilitate the evaluation of breeding stock for use in producing the next generations ("breeding stocks" とは如何なる存在か要考慮。なお "evaluation" は早稲田が好きな数理表現のひとつで惑わせるもの、ただ本テキストでは価値評定である由が続く。)
  • Mixing animal species leads to "maladapted" animals. (ここの注語は "mal" から連想必須!)
  • gene mixing
  • genomic methodology
  • interbreed
  • Habitats and animal ranges change and bleed into one another. (一応いっとくがここは "bleed" つまり血が混じるのである。)
  • Warmer temperatures have allowed grizzly bears and polar bears to venture to habitats they don't usually occupy and mate to form a hybrid. (この文章など、文法分析していたら嫌気がさすばかり。"venture" と  "mate" が動詞だということは語義の連想のみから分かること、語義を知らなければいつまでも分からない。)
(iv)
頭脳論かつITデバイスも絡めた小稿で、図示が無いため主体と客体の峻別を迷わせる典型的なタイプ。しかしこの類の英文解釈トレーニングには絶好のテキストだ。さて主旨は ─ 人間の脳において、創発的な描画行為の際に最も活性化される部位は、じつは前頭葉ではなく小脳であった、との実証実験。
  • explore the neural bases of creativity
  • neurological mechanism
  • enhance creativity
  • Participants in the study were placed into a functional magnetic resonance imaging machine (fMRI) with a nonmagnetic tablet and asked to draw a series of pictures based on action words (for example, vote, exhaust, salute) with 30 seconds for each word. (長めの文面、まずMRIは常識タームとしても、被験者はタブレット端末で何をするよう指示されたのか、なぜそのタブレットが "nonmagnetic" でなければならぬのか?そこまでピンときたらどんな実験か想像出来るだろう。)
  • The participants later ranked each word picture based on its difficulty to draw.
  • The tablet transmitted the drawings to researchers.
  • The prefrontal cortex ("cortex" も理系なら汎用語)
  • The cerebellum (小脳) was most active for the drawings the participants scored highest on for creativity.
(v) 
  • carbon dioxide
  • microscopic bacteria
  • pin down the holes (本箇所はスイスのチーズに発生する穴についての謎解きとして修辞的な表現)
  • the vexing scientific riddle
  • Scientists took multiple CT scans of Swiss cheese as it developed over 130 days to track where and how holes formed. (ここも、誰が何を行ったのか正確に理解要。)
  • Altering the number of hay particles in milk (that were) used to make cheese allowed them to control the number of holes that appears (on cheese.) (ここも何が何を可能としたのか名詞と代名詞から理解要。
(vi)
恐竜の化石分析、そこで見出される成長変化率をもとに、恐竜の生存時の代謝特性を想定するという内容。小稿ゆえ論旨は複雑ではない。 
  • warm-blooded animals
  • paleontologist
  • Researchers evaluated the metabolism of 21 dinosaur species by building a formula based on dinosaur's body mass (indicated by the size of thigh bones) and growth rates (indicated by rings in fossils). (ここが恐竜の生命代謝を想定する大前提。さて最初の "evaluate" はどういう行為か?)
  • Growth rings, like tree rings, demarcate (区切る) periods of arrested growth, while the spaces between rings indicate periods of rapid growth. ("arrest" は "rapid" と正対した状態と了察したい。)
※ この "growth rings" がどこに存する何を指してるのか、図表が無いため不明要で分かりにくい。前文から素直に導けば、それは 「 "growth rate" を indicate する "rings in fossils"」 であると考えられるが、どうなのだろう?ここの了解次第では問19の選択肢Aの正誤判断まで変わってくる。
    (vii)
    リチウムイオン電池の過剰反応性などの欠点を克服しうる新型電池のイノヴェーションについて。むろん、電池も電子も酸化還元も充電も、化学の教科書レベルの知識であり、英語力以前の教養。
    • prototype
    • thumb-pounding smartphone addict (ここでの"pound" は前小問にも類似表現あったが、何かの塊の連続の意。)
    • lithium-ion battery
    • Past aluminum battery iterations didn't pack enough juice to power devices, had extremely short life cycles and were susceptible to deterioration. (あたりまえの語彙ばかり、"power" は動詞。なお末尾の "deterioration" はここではどのような現象か、物理現象として類推必須。)
    • The researchers placed their aluminum anode and graphite cathode, along with an ionic liquid electrolyte, into a flexible polymer pouch. 最後の "pouch" がどのような形状か想像されたし。)
    ※ ところで本テキストの最後、"aluminum battery" は約2ボルト圧を実現しうるものもある、と記されているが、比較されている lithium-ion battery の定格電圧は現在 3.6ボルト以上である。念のため。
      (viii)
      • The high-cal food caused a bigger spike in brain activity associated with rewards. ("food", "spike", "rewards" から文意を想像したい。)
      • Just to know that the brain responds differently at different times of day could have implications for eating.
      • food-obsessed at night even if they weren't especially hungry
      • a boost in mood




      【 2015-I 】
      例年通りの形式で、物理や生物科にまたがる直近の主題が盛り込まれたもの目立ち、とくに名詞連結による理系的な新概念への想像力も依然問われている、よって品詞分析などほとんど無益であるとつくづく思い知らされる。なお、(i), (iv), (vii) ではやや誤解しやすい表現も仕込まれており、正誤判定への影響はともかくも論旨を喪失しないよう慎重に読みすすめたい。

      (i) 電気自動車と、リチウムイオン(ポリマー)電池によるハイブリッド車を区別出来たかどうか、そこが設問2のヒッカケにおける成否を分ける。

      • another record to his impressive resume
      • an electric vehicle
      • trip the lights at 184.01 mph with an elapsed time of 7.258 seconds (ここの "trip the lights" が面白い -ちょっと考えると「目にも止まらぬ速さで移動」の意ともとれるが、或いは特定の成語かもしれない。)
      • benchmark
      • drag racing ... gasoline-powered dragster (ここでの"drag" のニュアンスを見いだせただろうか?)
      • The car uses lithium-polymer battery array comprised of four packs. ... Each pack contains 300 cells ... making a maximum of 420 volts with a current of 3,600 amps. (理工学部同様、"cell" の意味を含めて電池の基礎素養を問う文面だ。)
      • 7.5-inch series-wound DC motors (物理の基本、なーんだというほどに簡単な描写箇所ではあるが、"series-wound" は単語力としては贅沢かもしれない)
      (ii)
      • Does reading faster mean reading better ? That's what speed-reading apps claim, promising to boost ... how well you understand a text.
      • There's just one problem : The same thing that speeds up reading actually gets in the way of comprehension. (ここの "The same thing" は意外に勘違いし易いが、続く"speeds up" と "gets in" の主語が同一ということである。)
      • plow straight through to the end
      • redundant waste of time
      • It's more efficient to present words one at a time in a fixed spot on a screen.
      • rapid serial visual presentation (以降では"RSVP"と固有名詞化されている)
      • It impaired comprehension.
      • With a new crop of speed-reading products on the market, psychologists decided to dig a bit more and uncovered a simple explanation for RSVP's flaw.
      • Every so often, we need to scan backward and reread for a better grasp of the material. (ここでの"material" は何らかの文章素材のこと)
      (iii) 電子機器の特定仕様を超えたネット化が実現させうる smart home について、電機メーカのパンフのような楽しい近未来像だ。ここでいう "smart" は理科系はむろん社会科でも半ば常識的な概念ともなっている。
      • term and stories about smart homes where the toaster talks to the smoke detector
      • Will the smart home become mainstream ?
      • Does a door lock by one vendor communicate with a light switch by another vendor ?
      • prompt the hall light to turn on
      • The house thermostat, which was lowered after you left for work, returns to a comfort zone.
      • sensors that can register changes in temperature, light, pressure, sound and motion
      • multiple devices
      • various household appliances
      (iv)
      • a grim fact
      • Children born into poor families are sicker and die earlier than their well-off counterparts, particularly from obesity-related diseases.
      • Such disparities are not carved in stone. (ここの"carved in stone" は洒落た表現である。) 
      • participate in an intensive, 5-year day care program
      • impoverished children
      • experimental evidence
      • Launched in 1972, the project is one of the longest running studies on the benefits of early childhood education for the low-income children.
      • The original goal of the research was to see if it was possible to enhance IQ and school readiness among poor children at high risk of falling behind when they transitioned into grade school. (長く引用しが、文意の理解は品詞分析ではなく語義に依るべきだと知らしめる絶好のサンプル文だ。ここでは誰が何をしたのか、とりわけ "high risk" は誰のいかなるリスクであるか?語義から文意全体を考えれば、最後の"transition" 含め驚くほど易しい文面であることが分かる。)
      • evaluator
      • fall flat (こういう表現に要注意だ)
      (v)
      • Every dinosaur went extinct.
      • Today, there are 10,000 species of feathered fliers (the birds), making them the most diverse of all the four-limbed animals.
      • lineage
      • Birds started downsizing.
      • Birds were the end product of a long-term trend of body size decline.
      • Although many dinosaurs were getting bigger and bulkier over millions of years, one group seems to have hedged its bets on body size : the maniraptorans, feathered dinos that eventually gave rise to the birds. (ここでの”hedge" と "bets" はビジネス英語の粋な転用となっている。なお "maniraptorans" はおそらく翼竜の一種)。
      • To pin down how dinosaur size changed over time, a team by a paleontologist estimated the body size of 426 different species, using the thickness of their fossilized hind leg bones as a proxy for their overall wight. ("proxy" のここでの真意を理解必須!)
      (iv)
      • The best part (of bicycling) is that the more miles you ride, the more you'll reap health benefits.
      • Because bicycling works the heart, blood vessels and lungs all at the same time, it also decreases your risk of stroke, high blood pressure and heart attack.
      • Bicycling is low-impact so it will put less strain on your joints. That's why many runners make the switch to biking when their knees start to go. (最後の "go" に留意。)
      • older adults who have knee or hip replacement
      • chronic diseases
      (vii)
      • By now you probably know about the plight (苦境) of America's honeybees : the collapsed colonies and dying hives, threatening pollination services to crops and the future of a much-beloved insect. (本箇所最後の "a much-beloved insect" は何を指すか?)
      • ecologist
      • reproduction
      • Wild bees and butterflies are out on the landscape, making them difficult to count. (ここの "out" に要留意!文脈全般に影響する。)
      • A lack of historical baselines makes it challenging to detect long-term trends.
      • Results from field studies and anecdotal reports from experts are piling up.
      • Many pollinator populations seem to be dwindling.
      (viii) 2012年のPISA学力調査結果によれば、practical problems = 実践的な諸問題 に対する15歳学生の理数系知識の応用力は、世界の学生たちの中で上海の学生が最も優秀である、また日本や韓国も進歩を見せている ─ 云々との短いテキスト。
       (※ 但し、上海の大人たちが本当に中国の現実的な諸問題への解決能力があるかどうかは疑わしい。なおここでの調査には中国そのものは参加していなかった由。)
      • lag behind
      • several U.S. states (U.S. と後者の "states" はここでは別の政治主体としている)
      • conduct the assessment

      【 2015-II 】
      • He's really vain of his appearance.
      • Practice outweighs theory.
      • at odd moments
      • Pete urged himself on despite his weariness. (この "weariness" は摩耗する意の "wear" から連想したい。)
      • Now that you have come of age, you should exercise the right to vote.
      • devotion to one's work


      【 2015-III 】
      • Barring a recession, consumers might have loosen their purse strings gradually.



      【2014-I】
      今回は健康増進に関わるテキスト、及びネット媒体に関わるテキストが目立ったが、何と言っても関係代名詞の極端に少ないジャーナリスティックな文面において、文脈に沿った単語の「意訳力」こそがスムースな読解を導く由、従来通りである。なお(i)は学生にとって特に読み難い、一方で(iv)及び(viii)のテキストは全受験生に薦めたい秀逸の技術論。
      (i)
      • Determine why you want to shed pounds (“I want to lose weight to gain energy”, for example.)
      • Start small.
      • Thinking you have to make cuts across the board can be overwhelming, leading to even more money stress. (ここでは多義の単語”cuts”“board”の真意が問われているが、文意のヒントはとくに最後の”money”であり、意訳力を問う典型的なケースだ)
      • Having a potluck means plenty of bonding, without the bill. ”potluck”は仲間同士の有り合わせ料理の意。さて”bonding”は多義語だがここでは財務用語ではない、末尾の”bill”に幻惑されぬよう。)
      • Chances are ...
      • Make a list of the five things that matter most to you, then make another one of how your time’s spent. ... The closer you can make (both) the lists, the more family time you’ll snag. (本箇所、一部を略しつつ引用したが、全体が何を言っているのか考えたい。とりわけ文末の“snag”は概してマイナス語義の汎用語だが、ここではどういう意図か?)
      (ii)
      • dubious distinction
      • the happiest tweeters ..., and their sad counterparts (ここでの”tweeters"はツイッターの利用者のこと)
      • computer algorithm
      • paid workers
      (iii)
      • Even at noon on this otherwise sunny day, the sky was blanketed in hazy toxic smog.
      • the entry points for more than half of the goods shipped into the United States
      • Idling cargo ships carrying 30,000 containers from Asia and the Pacific basin are unloaded by construction cranes towering more than 200 feet high on the docks.
      • the rail yards (この”yards”は物流の汎用語、知っていれば便利)
      • diesel-powered freight trains that ferry goods up and down the coast (ここでの“freight”も物流の汎用語。知っていれば便利)
      • heavily congested highways
      • massive port complex
      • epic grandeur
      (iv)
      • Games are a fun way to learn how to “follow rules, focus, take turns, and defer gratification.
      • decision making
      • agenda
      • ritual
      (v)
      • affordable device that produces more than twice the solar power (that is) generated by today’s panels
      • feat
      • professor of materials science and applied physics
      • ability to manipulate light
      • Solar panels on the market today consists of cells made from a single semiconducting material, usually silicon.
      • solar spectrum
      • split sunlight ... into six to eight component wavelengths
      • Each colour would be dispersed to a cell made of semiconductor that can absorb it.
      • prototype
      • transparent insulating material
      (vi)
      • ability to control how much we disclose to others
      • Every photo, chat, or status update posted on a social-media site can be stored in the cloud. (末尾の”cloud”は説明不要、この程度も判らなければ早稲田を受験する基礎素養が無い。)
      • Even though we intended to share information with someone, we don’t necessarily want it to stay available, out of context, forever. (これだけの文章において、”context”の真意を読みとりたい、)
      • make social media more of an analogue to everyday conversation that aren’t recorded for posterity (ここでは”analogue”の用法がおもしろい。理科によってはこの語のヴァリエーションくらいは学ぶのでは?なお”posterity は「後世」くらいの意味)
      • Snapchat, a mobile phone app
      • Snapchat lets users take photos or short videos and then decide how long they will be visible to the recipients.
      • Snapchat addresses some misgivings people have about privacy on Facebook. (ここでの動詞”address”は傑出して洒落ている用法、ビジネス上の行動ともとれるし、アプリのコマンドともとれる。どちらで理解しても大意には影響はないものの。)
      • not for nothing ... (これは論理的思考力があれば自力でも理解し得る表現、なお一般誌ではたまに見かける表現でもある。)
      (vii)
      • Studies attempting to tie vegetarianism to low mortality rates have not been conclusive.
      • track the diet habits and health outcomes
      • After controlling for significant health variables like age, race, exercise habits, and alcohol consumption, the study team found eating a vegetarian diet was associated with a 12% drop in all-cause mortality.
      • director of preventive medicine residency program (ここでの”residency”は「医学の研修期間」くらいの意味)
      • death-defying benefits
      • a jumping-off point of further study (ここの”jump off”を意訳すべし)
      (viii)
      • A healthy lifestyle can stave off cognitive decline. ”stave off”は過去出題でも何度か出てきた動詞表現、必須!)
      • While fewer younger people (ages 18-39) had memory complaints than older generations did, numbers were still much higher than expected at 14%. (本文は論旨の精密な理解が必須。かつ、”memory complaints”は極めて英語的な表現だがどういう症状か類推したい、また”numbers”が何を指すかも混乱しないこと。)
      • the shorter attention span we all suffer at the hands of the constant temptations of technology
      • Hard work paid off. (この”pay off”はとてつもない汎用観念、日本の普通の社会人でも使う。未だに意味を理解していない予備校講師や参考書も散見するが、バカじゃなかろうか。)
      • a memory boost

       2014-II 
      • The slow housing market resembles Japan’s lost decade.
      • get my day’s chores done
      • up and around
      • The new school curriculum emphasises hands-on laboratory work over rote (暗記の) memorization of facts.
      • The professor wound up his lecture with an explanation of the upcoming exam.


       2013-I 
      例年通り、何についてのコンテンツか概括することがまず大切、そのためには分野や範疇を指す用語を幅広くカバー必須である。たとえば、”precipitation” ”alloy” “quantum” などは理科では基本用語のはず。
      (i)
      • a struggle with a perfect adversary
      • shale reserves (that are) unlocked by using a new mining technique (“shale”は現代世界で大注目の燃料資源、知っていて当然のもの)
      • around $2 per million British thermal units
      • The country’s fuel import bill doesn’t go up.
      • (Gas) utilities ... are already passing savings on to customers. (ここでの “utility” は何を供給する、どういう形態の法人か、 “savings” は何を指すか?)
      (ii)
      • the world’s most formidable storm-chasing research craft
      • (that is) outfitted to withstand the lightning, turbulence, and hail that big clouds unleash
      • meteorological equipment
      • Optical imagers will use lasers to cast shadows, capturing the motion of rain ...
      • precipitation forecasts
      • reconfigure the airplane for peacetime duty
      • instruments pods with sensors to detect wind speed
      (iii)
      • at an undisclosed location
      • no psychics or crystal balls
      • determine human intention through the subtlest of changes in heat rate, gaze, and other physiological markets
      • Future Attribute Screening Technology
      • aim to highlight airport passengers whose bodies betray hostile intentions (ここでの “betray” はどういう論旨か要考慮)
      • other consequences, such as flagging innocent travellers through false positives while letting some with ill intent sneak by through false negatives
      • officers already roam the nation’s airport scanning for suspicious behaviour and facial expressions
      • single out those (passengers) worth pulling aside for additional screening
      (iv)
      • The meter is fixed to the speed of light and a second to the radiation of cesium.
      • The mass of one kilogram is still pegged to an old-fashioned cylinder iridium alloy kept under lock and key ...
      • Their kilogram is way more complicated than a supermarket scale would have you think.
      • unanimously agreed
      • tentative plan to base the kilogram on a fundamental constant of quantum mechanics
      • attempt to pin down the exact electromagnetic force
      • balance the gravitational tug on an object
      • Cold War-era uranium enrichment technology
      • count the number of atoms in extremely round balls of ultrapristine (最も原初的) silicon
      (vi)
      • digital divide
      • strongest negative predictions for Internet use
      • ubiquitous
      • electronic gadget
      (vii)
      • prop up the economy
      • effort to build subsidised housing for the urban poor
      • encounter stiff opposition
      • Cities and towns balk at footing the bill and seek more profitable investments for their money. (“foot the bill” は費用を負担する、の意の経済用語だが難度高い)
      • boost the steel, cement, copper, and aluminium industries
      • Prices sag and construction slows in the real estate market.
       2013-II 
      • the benefit of the doubt (極めて重要な格言であり、是非とも知っておいて欲しいもの。「他者を疑えば私に得がある」、という意味ではなく、むしろ逆で、疑わしさそのものにも効用が有る→つまり「疑わしきは未だ罰するには至らず」。)
      • A major corporation has decided to take over the IT start-up company.



      2012 -I
      (i)
      • A record company decides to sign a new band.
      • Marketing firms use focus groups to guess at future musical gold mines.
      • Conflicting motivations can hamper results.
      • consciously pinpoint which songs will be hits
      • The researchers recorded participants’ neural reactions.
      • a prepared statement
      (ii)
      • The number of teachers with active Facebook accounts has jumped from 11 percent in 2007 to 44 percent in 2010.
      • The most likely school technology complaint today is about restrictive filtering.
      • nonprofit group
      (iii)
      • disposable plastic bag
      • relic of a bygone era
      • statewide ban on plastic bags
      • wage an all-out campaign, to deny that plastic bags pose a threat to the environment
      • Unwashed bags – like any unwashed fabric – can carry bacteria.
      • statewide bag-ban bill
      • State legislators have sought ... to standardise retail practices across two states already dotted with city- and county-level bans.
      (iv)
      • problems of overweight and inactivity
      • The big picture is fairly easily stated, despite some intriguing wrinkles.
      • generalise
      • dietary restriction
      • Getting a sedentary population to move is more difficult than putting people on a diet.
      • lean and well-toned bodies of hunter-gatherers
      • slender frames of subsistence farmers
      (v)
      • inflict pain via pulses of radiant heat from an infrared laser
      • sensitive radial nerve
      • Participants reported significantly reduced sensations of pain.
      • Crossing hands over the body midline impairs the brain’s ability to localise tactile(触知し得る) stimuli. 
      • vice-versa
      (vi)
      • intellectual property
      • cyber thieves (慶應総合政策や経済などでも馴染みになりつつある単語)
      • research and development
      • source code
      • The security firm urged companies to know who looks after their data as it moves into the cloud or third-party hosting centres.
      • Some business data had always been scooped up when net thieves compromised PCs using viruses and trojans in a search for logins or credit card numbers. (この文は図抜けて実践的 – ゆえに学生には理解困難 – であるが、とりわけcompromise の意味が難度高く、ここでは「巧みに適合する」、くらいの意味、また trojans は文字通りトロヤの木馬の意だが、ここではコンピュータに侵入して或る一定要件で起動するワームという種類の悪意プログラムを指す。)
      • a ready market
      (vii)
      • the incidence of near-sightedness
      • Participants underwent vision exams and answered questionnaires.
      • Light intensity is greater outdoors than indoors.
      • Outdoor light alters neurotransmitter levels in the retina.neuro- の合成語の意味くらいは理解必須!retina は瞳の網膜系の意。)
      • The light stimulates dopamine release.
      (viii)
      • digitise historical documents
      • archive
      • traditional textbook narrative
      • multiple voices available to reach audiences
      • umbrella organisation
      【 2012-II 
      • Let’s cut a few corners.
      • revitalisation of the language
      • Police have begun looking into allegations that the burglary at the museum involved insiders.
      • the state-of-the-art computer (この state-of-the-art は難度が高い表現、という注釈も出回っているようだが、とんでもない嘘で、実際はマスコミでさえも日常レベルで使う常識用語である。)


      【 2011-I 
      (i)
      • tobacco industry of old
      • (Producers of sugar-sweetened drinks) lobby to prevent change...
      • In moderate quantities, soda isn’t harmful.
      • a rise in what can no longer be called “adult onset diabetes
      (ii)
      • American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
      • Controlling (allergies’) flare-ups involves managing their home environment, taking medication, and having their pets groomed regularly. (この文中の flare-up はどういう意味か、連想力の発揮しがいのある表現)
      • cat-induced allergies
      • Because felines (ネコ科の動物) lick their fur to keep clean, the troublesome protein is also deposited on their coats.
      (iii)
      • Compiled by federal health and environment agencies, the analysis aims to identify research the federal government should undertake.
      • Reducing the use of fossil fuels will reduce not just emissions of greenhouse gasses, which drive warming, but also particulate matter and other pollutants that factor in many conditions that are among the leading causes of death in the United States ... (ちょっと長めだが、出題テキストはもっと長い。ここではdrive  factor – これら動詞の意味を読解すること)
      • net protection of human health
      (iv)
      • The temple is part of a cluster of old temples and shrines in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
      • enshrine Buddhist statues
      • The CG images evoke a peaceful sea bottom.
      • particle
      • colour coordination of the interior
      (v)
      • Tension runs high.
      • 5 p.m. rolls around .... Many shops record half of their sales after this time.
      • meddle in merchandise purchasing and shop displays
      • keep operating costs down
      • fiscal year
      • Department stores have launched cost-cutting measures.
      • The store stands out for allowing almost all tenant shops to have total control over operations from the selection of merchandise sales to sales of products and promotions.
      • slash costs
      • increase operating profit ratio 
      • streamline its operations
      について、商学部の出題でもないのに企業経営用語を出題させるなんて ─ と嘆く人がいるが、この程度の英語は社会人なら常識範囲内、だから理科系も文科系も無いし、早稲田が出題するのも当たり前。)

      (vi)
      • Earth Day
      • The Navy jet will aim to break the barrier that has proven far more durable than the speed of sound.
      • twin-engine tactical aircraft
      • supersonic flight
      • elusive search
      • showcase the Pentagon’s efforts to increase use of renewable energy, not only as a climate change initiative, but to protect the military from energy price fluctuations
      • A “Great Green Fleet” will include nuclear ships, as well as surface combatants with hybrid electric power systems using biofuel and biofuel-powered aircraft. (むろん”Green” は環境に易しいの意だが、テキスト文から想起必須。)
      (vii)
      • The snowboarder scopes out the many chutes and bowls that radiate from the peak.
      • numerous ungroomed, expert-level slopes ] (この ungloom は問(ii) groom が判ればなんとか連想可
      • The teenager is looking for a route that will provide cliffs and bumps so he can catch some air.
      • Democratic lawmakers
      • The bills pass and are signed into law.
      (viii)
      • Nihon Keizai Shimbun launched its new Web version.
      • Web subscribers
      • Many of Nikkei’s resources will be applied to cyberspace.
      2011-II
      • Robert put his reputation on the line when he published his controversial theories.
      • vote by absent ballot



      2010-I
      (i)
      • lead to new treatment approaches for depression
      • Patients in a clinician-assisted Internet-based treatment program experienced rates of recovery similar to those achieved by face-to-face therapy.
      • The program (dubbed the Sadness program) required an average of only 111 minutes of clinician email contact per person.
      • social phobias and other anxiety disorders
      • Depression would be more difficult (to treat) because of the lack of motivation usually associated with the illness. (誰も指摘していないようだが、この文章は難解である!それは、”the lack of motivation” が鬱病の属性そのものとしての意欲減衰を 指すのか、それとも治療への意欲の欠如を述べているのか、判然としないからである。テキスト全文から解釈すれば、おそらく前者の意味と察せられるが、どこ に正論が述べられているのか未だに分からず仕舞いであり、こういうところちゃんと解説せずして学生からカネとって授業すべきではない。)
      (ii)
      • Most of the reefs have lost all the intricate, tree-like corals that until 1970s provided sanctuary for unique reef fish and other creatures, as well as protecting coastlines by sapping the energy of waves. coral  reef もけして日常頻出語ではないが、coral reef が珊瑚礁の意であることは高校のリーダ教科書でも習うはず。そこから連想させて読みきるべし。)
      • Coral diversity is important for both the many species that swell on reefs and for costal protection.
      • Different corals – fast-growing but short-lived “weedy” species – then took over the reefs, outcompeting most of the remaining tree-like corals.
      • sheer density of human habitation
      (iii)
      • Running is no fun when you’re plagued by common complaints like allergies, asthma, and stomach troubles.
      • high-pollen days
      (iv)
      • carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from burning fossil fuels
      • combustion engine
      • recover lost energy and reinject it into the system
      • hardware components, software components (早稲田を受けるくらいなら、いくらなんでも hardware  software くらいは論理的に理解必須、実社会では「ド常識」の日常用語であって、これを理科系の英語だなどと決め付けている方がおかしい。)
      (v)
      • They need extra education and skill-sharpening to thrive in a recession.
      • Increasing competition promises to dramatically drive down prices.
      • for-profit university
      • Expanding ranks of traditional universities and Internet entrepreneurs introduce online programmes. (この “ranks” がイメージし難いのであれば “ranges” や “classes” と置き換えれば判り易い。)
      • If you don’t care about getting credit, online courses are absolutely free. (ここでの “credit” はオンライン大学から認定される資格=単位のごときもの)
      (vi)
      • People deal with information that confirms or contradicts their opinions.
      • moderate preference
      (vii)
      • More college students are travelling abroad ... to simply improve their resumes.
      • foreign language courses, culture immersion, internships with local businesses, and homestays for one flat fee
      • be aware of all services that will help you travel on a budget
      (viii)
      • The company has signed the world’s two largest deals to build new solar-power capacity.
      • The company will soon begin constructing the first in a series of 14 solar-power plants that will collectively supply more than 2.6 gigawatts of electricity.
      • accomplish the feat
      • The company specialises in “concentrating solar-thermal technology” in which mirrors concentrate sunlight to produce heat.
      • The heat is then used to create steam, which in turn drives a turbine to generate electricity.
      • Solar-thermal power stations are probably best able to match a utility’s electrical load.
      • The output of a solar-thermal plant does not fluctuate as wildly as that of a photovoltaic (太陽光発電) system. 
      • natural-gas boilers (この boiler は 学生には傑出して連想しにくいもの、かつ出回っている日本語訳でもきちんと記していないので補足する。これは天然ガス「を」蒸気化する設備ではなく、天然 ガス「で」蒸気を起こす設備であり、その蒸気で発電用タービンの回転力を補完するというのが本テキストの主旨である。工学系を目指す学生ならばもちろん理 解出来る内容。)
       2010-II 
      • increase the nation’s birthrate
      • measures to combat poverty on a global scale
      • People with chronic illness are usually at great risk of contracting influenza.(ここでの contract は要注意!よく使われる用法である。)
       2010-III 
      • In the wake of devastation, heavy machines were put to work to search for survivors.



       2009-I 
      (ii)
      • Acne (にきび) starts when oil and dead skin cells colg (ふさぐ) the skin’s pores.
      • germ(s)
      • Hormone changes make the skin more oily after puberty starts.
      (iii)
      • Alcohol abuse means having unhealthy or dangerous drinking habits.
      • a strong need, or craving, to drink
      • You feel like you must drink just to get by.
      • You have withdrawal symptoms when you stop drinking.
      (iv)
      • The year-round ice peak in the Arctic Ocean had lost some 20 percent of its mass in just two years, setting a new record low since satellite imaginary began documenting the terrain in 1978.
      • stave off (この動詞表現は学生には酷か、しかし一般メディアでは散見されるもの)
      • ice-free shipping lane
      • the shipping industry – which now has easy northern access between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
      • Low-lying island nations, especially in equatorial regions, have been hardest hit by the phenomenon.
      • Islanders on Tuvalu are scrambling to find new homes as salt water intrusion has made their groundwater undrinkable.
      • Strong hurricanes and ocean swells have devastated shoreline structures.
      (v)
      • (Mediterranean peoples) have been eating meals of fish, vegetables, and whole grains drizzled (流されて) with olive oil, then washing it all down with a glass or two of wine for generations.
      • The typical overprocessed, fat-and sugar-laden American diet.
      • recently devised dietary guides built on age-old traditions
      • reducing a diet to its essential foods and then foods to their essential nutrients
      • What we’re talking about is the background diet ... it’s the day-to-day, meal to meal, bite to bite: What is it that appears in your mouth ?
      (vi)
      • Businesses say they must carefully choose which electronics to provide for employees.
      • Some companies end up being “penny wise but pound foolish.”
      • There’s no easy way to measure how much they boost productivity.
      • The company reimburses employees for extra work-related charges.
      (vii)
      • Decades of chemical pollution have damaged the ozone layer of the upper atmosphere that shields Earth from the harmful effects of the Sun’s ultraviolet rays, each summer eating a hole over the South Pole that expands to nearly the size of Antarctica.
      • International treat banned the culprit chemical refrigerants (冷媒剤) and propellants (スプレー高圧ガス).
      • Mending the ozone may reverse (global) warming in Antarctica and , potentially, the globe.
      • ocean circulation
      • the carbon uptake of the oceans
      • the equator
      (viii)
      • learn to evaluate Web sites
      • physical impairments
      • Students with attention deficit disorders may not be able to keep track of the “what” they are researching.
      • voice recognition software





      (参考)
       2008-I 
      (i)
      • off-the-shelf
      • access to a 3D scanning kiosk
      • a coded identification tag which contains information on the item’s size, style and colour
      (ii)
      • Some of the moisture in the clouds is evaporating before it ever hits the ground.
      • Precipitation (降雨) occurs when enough water condenses around small particles in the air to create raindrops heavy enough to fall to the ground.
      • The big story here is that we are changing the planet’s water cycle in many ways.
      (iii)
      • The feats ... would lay the groundwork for future autonomous robotic missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond.
      • The Autonomous Space Transfer and Robotic Orbit servicing satellite is designed to approach the target satellite and dock with it autonomously, without help from the ground controllers.
      • There is a time lag of more than one second for commands from Earth to reach robotic craft operating near the Moon.
      • Filling up the fuel tank will be harder in space than it is on the ground, because bubbles form in the fluid, so pistons will be used to push the fluid to target location.
      • occasional piece of space debris
      (iv)
      • a code of ethics to stop humans misusing robots – or vice versa.
      • “Three Laws of Robotics” put forward by science fiction author Isaac Asimov. (アイザック・アシモフは科学者かつ、SF小説の世界的草分けとして知られるが、このくらいは半ば常識範囲でもある。)
      • (1) A robot may not injure a human or, through inaction, allow a human to come to harm. (2) A robot must obey orders given by a human unless these conflicts with the first law. (3) A robot must protect its own existence as long as this does not conflict with the first or second law.
      • have robots that can act on an intrinsic shared value system
      (v)
      • simulation to study how protein folds into the clumps (細胞塊の意) that litter the brains of Alzheimer’s patients
      • Cells build protein by linking amino acids into a chain, which spontaneously folds into a three-dimensional shape that lets the protein do its various jobs.
      • Diseases such as Mad Cow, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s result from proteins that fold improperly and get tangled together, thereby gumming up (固めてしまう) the brain.
      • break up complex simulations into manageable pieces, ... send them to PCs that crunch the numbers in their spare time
      • screen saver 
      • slash simulation times from 30 years to two or three years 
      • highly touted microprocessor
      本問は図案無しで理解することはけして容易ではないが、fold, tangle, crunch, slash といった汎用動詞の専門的な用法の醍醐味を味わって欲しい)

      (vi)
      • propagate sound from outside the world to the tympanic membrane (鼓膜)
      • The sound is transmitted to the brain and informs the listener about pitch, intensity, and even location.
      • This delicate system evolved from the cruder listening organs of our reptilian ancestors.
      • Palaeontologists have scoured (探求し続けてきた) fossil organs in search of signs of how the jawbones of reptile migrated and became the middle ear of mammals.
      • transitional structure
      (vii)
      • little child that you have fed up, nurtured, and lost sleep over
      • caregiver
      • abnormal aggression
      • Young toddlers begin to experiment with the concept of cause and effect.
      (viii)
      • adolescent development
      • patchwork of systems with varying restrictions
      • reduce fatality rate
      • legislative proposal unveiled by Secretary of State
      • enhancements in proposal
      • a provision that would triple the length of time teens must hold a learner’s permit (on driving)
      • Teens are very distracted by other teenagers.
       2008-II 
      • He didn’t work hard at school, so he left with few marketable skills.
      • She was sent to trial, charged with stealing trade secrets from her company.
      • With the audit of the company coming soon, office workers have been stretched to the limit.
       2008-III 
      • Even to this day, organisations in some countries are still segregated on the basis of gender.
      • Although he is the favourite, his success in the tennis tournament will depend upon his preparation.
      以上







      謝辞

      ここに提示の記事は、いずれも私自身の判断責任のもと編集・投稿したものです。

      大半の投稿は学生など若年層向けを意図してやや平易な表現にて、一方では通俗性を極力回避しつつ、論旨の明示性を意図して書き綴りました。

      あわせてまた、社会人の皆様にお読み頂くことも想定しつつ、汎用性高い観念知識を相応に動員しながら記した積もりです。

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      山本