慶應 医学部の英語 (2018)


【 2018-I 】
  • Good social relationships ... are a necessary condition for happiness. This finding cuts across race, age, gender, income, and social class so overwhelmingly that all other predictors of happiness look tiny by comparison.  (まとめて引用したが、本箇所は設問にて日訳を求められており、"cut across" が分かれば造作もない。)
  • Teenagers and young adults these days give less priority to just "hanging out" with their friends than any generation in recent history, replacing real-world interaction with smartphones.  (ここも設問で日訳が問われているが、"hang out"を知っていれば易しい英文である、それどころか、この熟語はビジネス英語はむろん日常語でもごく普通に起用されるものである!)
  • people who consider themselves outgoing
  • those who are more inward looking
問6の英作文、『あなたは他者と"enough time"を過ごしていると思うか?その時間の"quality"をどう価値づけるか?ヨリ長い(或いは短い)時間をsocialisationに費やしたいか?』 について理由とともに述べる。ここまで段階的に思考の選択肢が準備された設問なので、100語程度であればかなり書きやすいはず
  • Let me quote my own "socialisation" herein as of some knowledge-to-materialisation procedures, which will lead to specific outputs among some people. I believe this works well among people of the same ranges of R&D terms or business interests, and this procedure is the real socialisation that I will highly qualify (evaluate).  However, We must remind that there could be some intervening medias in between who may irresponsibly dilute the weights of some parts of our knowledge.  Those given, I suppose the most efficient schemes pursuing to our real and specific socialisation are direct peer-to-peer networks, online or off. We must count the real hours in which we engage ourselves in our real socialisation, not the whole hours we are just involved in open communications. 
※ この解答案がどのくらい評価されるかは知ったことではない。本来ならもっと具体的な題材を据えつつ作文を仕上げてみてもいい。ともあれ、一定の要件がおかれた題意に則りながらも、自分から更に具体的な定義付けを為し、その上で作文を練り上げていく方法は、けして卑怯な逃避ではあるまい。

【 2018-II 】
とりわけ、(空欄ふくめた)第3段落における "no comment" の台詞はその真意が言外に在るがゆえに可笑しいのであるが、ここまで読み取れるかどうか。さらに、第5段落で挙げられる「皮肉なユーモア表現」については、大手予備校の公表解答が割れるほどに凝った謎かけを成している。
  • a friendly American guy with a tendency to daydream
  • Stan's absent-minded Japanese counterpart  (ここでのStanは本テキストを通じての笑われ者のアメリカ人のこと。注目すべきは "counterpart" で、この比較対象を指す代名詞こそが、本テキストが日米のユーモア論を比較並走させている由を閃かせる。)
  • The phone greeting Moshi moshi ... equates nicely with a drawn-out "Hellooooo in English, and it can be supplemented with Okite imasuka ? ("Are you awake ?") to add insult to injury.
  • Wherever you are, including Japan, it's never fun to admit to doing something embarrassing. On the other hand, it's not fun to deny it, either, because by doing so you are simply lying.  (ここは難所である。あくまで文意は、おかしなことをしでかした際の、その当人のどういう態度が、なぜ"fun"ではないのか、どういう態度がただの"lying"に過ぎないのか ─ つまり、本箇所の論旨は態度の正当性ではなく可笑しさについてであること留意方。)
  • When Stan says, "No comment", everyone knows that the story (スタンがしでかしたバカな行為のこと) is in fact true, but by just implying that he did something stupid without admitting it directly, he makes everyone laugh.  (誰が何を "imply" し、なぜ皆を笑わせるのか、理解方。)
  • excessive modesty and mock boasting
  • In English, men who are complimented on their looks often say, "That's what all ladies say." This may seem boastful, but it can also be taken ironically to suggest that the opposite is true.  (ここの下線部の真意が設問対象となっている。さて、本箇所にかかる主題は「他者からの侮辱に対して自虐的な冗談を以て答えること」の皮肉な痛快さである。この由をふまえた上で、あらためて下線部箇所の真意を当てたい。予備校によって日本語解釈が異なっているが、間違えぬよう。)

【 2018-III】

【 2017-I 】
  • Once you have dug the ditches and properly installed the power lines and conduits (underground), costs can be ten times those of comparably sized networks of above-grounds (power) utility poles. Whatever the costs, though, some contend that this isn't the place to cut corners. (一続きに引用。ここで下線部の和訳が設問対象になっている。ポイントは "contend" で、これは "some" を受けているため人為であると分かるが、では "this" は何を指すか?そこが分かれば文意を閃くだろう。)
  • Japanese government has been enacting (規定してきた) initiatives to replace the existing poles with underground systems.
  • benefits in terms of cost and durability
  • underground power grids
  • TEPCO (東京電力) has pointed out that ..."in the event of flooding or landslides, it's harder to isolate the damaged areas in an underground (power grid) system. ... That can increase the amount of time needed to restore power to damaged areas". (ここで、東電による言として 「災害時に被災地域の "power" を "isolate" する」 はどういう行為かを考えたい。電気系についての勘を働かせないと厳しいかも。ヒントは、この行為は給電システムの復旧のために敢えてなされるもの、そして地下電線の場合にはそれがヨリ困難であると東電が言っていること。)
  • useful roles (that are) played by power poles, such as providing housing for street lights, and space for maps and address markers ... 
  • Power lines ... are going to be a conspicuous part of the Japanese landscape for some time to come.

【 2017-II 】

【 2017-III 

  • Air pollution takes years off people's lives.
  • Economies electrify, motorize and urbanize.
  • Politicians tend to focus short-sighted on the costs of action, rather than the costs of inaction. ("action" と "inaction" の対が粋な名文だ。もちろんここでの2つの "costs" は別物である。)
  • fuel a steady rise in emissions of air pollutants
  • concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone
  • premature death
  • All of this (pollution-related illness) will translate into more pollution-related hospital admissions. (本箇所は "translate" がやや戸惑わせるが、末尾の " hospital admission" とともに考えたい。なおこの人数は、本箇所の前段に挙げられている罹患者総数とは異なっていること、当然である。)
  • adverse health effects of dirty air - what economists call the "disutility of illness" (この "disutlitity" は語義を類推要。経済学のタームでもあるが、知らずとも論理的に考えたい。)
  • The true costs of air pollution ... weigh far more heavily on people than any price tag can represent.
  • Politicians tend to respond more to hard figures than to abstract experiences.
  • The OECD examined numerous economic studies on air pollution to quantify what people's health is worth to them.
  • On average, individuals would be prepared to pay around $30 to reduce their annual risk of dying prematurely by 1 in 100,000. Using well-established techniques, these "willingness-to-pay" figures were converted into an overall value of premature deaths caused by air pollution ... . By that measure, the global cost ... would reach a staggering (驚くべきことに) $18 trillion to $ 25 trillion a year by 2060. (本箇所、どういうコスト計算をしているか分かるだろうか?僕にはよく分からない。本テキストにて、ここのところ展開が明記されていないのがつくづく残念だ)
  • This is not "real money", as the costs are not related to any market transactions.

※  上のコスト試算にかかる箇所で、各人が年間あたりのリスクを30ドルで10万分の1づつ低減させるとして、仮に30ドルを10万倍し、世界人口60億人で合算すると、18に0が15個続き、18兆ドルどころではない。
※※ ところで、question 1 における文整序はじつは難解だ。(C)→(A)→(B)とつながるのは精読すれば分かるが、問題は(D)で、これは一番はじめにおくとも考えられるが、(A)と(B)の間ともとれなくはない。

【 2017-V 】
これは最高の良問、医学部にふさわしい英作文課題だ!いっそのこと上の大問 I, II, III は全部取っ払って、本問だけの出題としてもよいくらい。「朝食には何を食べるべきか、常識もふまえつつ自身の習慣について述べよ」 というもの。
とりあえず熱代謝と消化から捉えると、 ともに効率良い食材が望ましいだろう、では満腹と腹八分目ではどちらがよいか…?と条件分けしつつ、それでてめえの食ってるものを論ずれば、80語前後はすぐにこなせそうだ。
I make it my consistent rule to have just some fruits on my waking up. I believe that, after calorie consumption in my body throughout sleeping, sorts of fruits will refuel me with glucose effectively for quick metabolism. Another advantage I admit in fruits intake is that their watery structures come with smooth digestion to energy transmission. These benefits, with their sore tastes, save me from overeating. Not in the least, fruits do not take much time nor work before dishing. Just a refrigerator and a knife is necessary on having them. Forget a microwave.

【 2016-I 】
  • the 2015 Paris Climate Conference
  • a new, legally binding global agreement to combat climate change
  • chart a course toward a low carbon, green economy (that is) powered by renewable energy (ところでこの "power" は能動態の場合は "empower" で表現することが多い。)
  • The transition to a low carbon economy will occur one way or another.
  • a disorderly one (transition) spurred by crises and human hardship
  • threaten or overwhelm the foundation of our market economy
  • pledge to phase out fossil fuel emissions
  • Low carbon technologies hold the promise of being profitable long-term investments.
  • We cannot continue to rely only on fossil fuels to power those vehicles and supply the bulk of our energy. (ここも動詞 "power" にこだわりたい。"empower" でなく "power" のまま能動態として使えるのなら、早稲田人間科学のイオン電池についてのテキストにある "pack enough juice to power devices" の "power" も動詞たりうる。念のため。)

【 2016-II 】
  • The Slow Reading Club ... is part of a movement populated by book lovers who miss old-fashioned reading.
  • Slow reading advocates seek a return to the focused reading habits of years gone by, before smartphones and social media started stealing our time and shortening our attention spans. (ここの "years gone by" も "steal" も文学部で出題されそうな語義類推。)
  • The movement echoes revivals of old-fashioned, time-consuming pursuits that offset the ever-faster pace of life. ("echo", "offset" いずれも汎用語だがここでの文意に沿って理解必須。)
  • Regular engagement in mentally challenging activities, including reading, slowed rates of memory loss.
  • Reading literary fiction helps people understand others' mental states and beliefs.
  • Our reading patterns have changed from the linear, left to right sequence of years past to a wild skimming and skipping pattern as we hunt for key words and information.

【 2016-III 】
  • Even after a depression that has wiped out a quarter of its economy, Greece's population is still not the worst off in the Eurozone.
  • living standards
  • income per head
  • Why did they (the Greeks) have to be rescued when, in a global context, they are still reasonably well off ?
  • The expectation reference point of MPs (国会議員) is the pay of company executives and senior bureaucrats - in other words, those who (whom) they consider their peers. That's why they feel desperately poor and demand higher salaries. (本テキストの要点のひとつ "expectation reference point" の具体例。代名詞も取り違えぬよう。ここが理解できれば以降の段落も易しい。)
  • In classical economical models, recessions should be short and self-correcting.
  • The psychological reference points makes people strongly resist taking a pay cut.

【 2016-IV 】
そういえば上の大問 II にて、人間が情報洪水に晒され過ぎると知性と社会性が衰える恐れがうんぬん、とあった。これとてヒントにすればよいのだ、理系ならば頭はダイナミックに使え!
そこで例として、「僕の代わりにネットでいろいろ知識を収集し、さらに学校に行って授業を聞いてきて、それらを分かりやすくまとめて僕に概説してくれるロボット」 …というものを閃いてみた。
I would like to design some robots (or IT entities) that are capable of enhancing my own intellectual composites. In my mind, those robots are supposed to access and memorise far more fact data throughout the limitless internet entities and from various school teachers (academics) than I could within my own capabilities.
Of course, those robots will at the same time measure how deep or shallow my intellect has reached in each knowledge field, then will calibrate and assemble their memorised data fragments and transmit them to my senses, until they confirm that I get so learned.

【 2015-I 】
  • A large asteroid ripped through the atmosphere over the Chelyabinsk area of Russia, trailing long lines of smoke as it made its shallow entry, radiating light and heat ...
  • There are around one million asteroids in the Earth's vicinity (近接空間) with the potential to destroy a major metropolitan area.
  • an animated graphic
  • show "what it (the Earth) really looks like out there" with the Earth shooting through a million-strong field of asteroids (ここの"strong" の意味に留意方。)
※  問2(ア)における "dozen" の用法について、ちょっと腑に落ちなかったので辞典で確認のところ、dozen(s) of A といった用法もありうると ─ 実際に僕も輸出営業にて品目リスト作成で dozen(s) of ... 式の記述を行っていた記憶がある。かかる汎用性からしてこの選択も正解とされないものだろうか?

【 2015-II 】
  • Solar power ought soon to be a big part of the world's energy mix.
  • Solar power is unavailable at night and is most efficiently generated in deserts - places where few potential consumers live and which are often in countries with dubious governments. (ここの "dubious" の意図に留意。)
  • Is solar power forever destined to be something for which fossil-fuel-based economics half-heartedly provide financial support ?
  • One conventional answer is that the world needs saving from the effects of climate change caused by man-made global warming. The other (conventional answer) is that the world needs saving from dependance on fossil-feuls, which are, by definition, a finite resource. (ここでの"saving" の意味を理解方。)
  • Few informed people doubt that humanity's emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, are altering the climate. (この"doubt" の対象とする論理につき間違えないよう。)
  • business as usual
  • access to the cheapest energy sources ... to help bring about the economic growth that would help pay for adaptation to an altered climate (ここでは "help" の意味を理解要。)
  • More untapped resources are know to exist even now, such as methane (that is) trapped at the bottom of the sea in icy structure. (いわゆるメタンハイドレートについて聞き及んでいれば理解容易。なお"untapped" については、汎用性高い動詞 "tap" から類推されたい。)
  • anticipate the problem (of energy shortage) by perfecting solar technologies (ここでの"anticipate" の用法はちょっと難しいが、物事を実践する意。)
  • not sustainable without financial support
  • Solar technologies can be deployed rapidly when needed.
  • intriguingly
  • Renewables supply a quarter of Germany's electricity needs. ("renewable" は訳注付きだが、ここは常識語として抑えておきたい。)
  • for good
  • Germany's subsidization of green energy comes to € 20 billion.
  • risk of suffering blackouts
  • a suitable intercontinental power grid
  • Many of the sunniest nearby countries (to Germany) have unfriendly government of questionable stability. (ここの"stability" が最も凝った描写箇所、文意にそもまま従えば政治上の属性ととれるが、もしかしたら多義語として輸出電力の属性について触れているのか?)
  • The running cost of at least the simplest sort of solar power station are minimal. Get the capital costs of such technology low enough and solve the problem of overnight storage ... . (ここにあるように、"capital cost" および "running cost" は早稲田理工の英文でも引用された経営の基礎用語であり、学部系党を問わず理解必須の概念でもある。なお "overnight" もビジネス英語では汎用語のひとつで、一晩のという意味ではなく「当面の」といった意味である。)

【 2015-III 】
  • biodiversity
  • natural habitat
  • eradicate
  • certain animals (which are) extremely vulnerable to the effects of invasive species
  • proliferate (訳注があるが、このくらいは知っていて欲しいもの)
  • Invasive species can gradually alter whole ecosystems, disrupting the natural diets of local species.
  • genetic materials
  • slime

【 2015-IV 】 
「もし何でもカネで買えるとしたら何を買いたいか?」 について自分なりの見解を記せ、という作文課題。
The most appropriate thing to buy, supposedly upon my limitless financial resources, will be some sorts of monetary assets, which must be somehow endorsed by absolutely higher monetary value than those of any other currencies in any situation of exchange or saving, with concurrent availability in purchasing any amounts of tangible commodities regardless the place of commerce. These financial features come as the very reason I wish I had such monetary assets for years.
つまり ─ いかなる為替や預金の局面においても絶対に他の通貨より高い金融価値が保証され、いかなる地域局面での有形財購入も可能であるという、そんな金 融資産を買いたい。これらの特性そのものがそれをずっと有していたい理由である、とした。こういうトンチのような回答が有効回答として認められるかどうか は判らない、しかし、何でも買えるとの前提によるのならこんな回答の仕方だってありえよう。

  • Falsifying documents was a legitimate exercise as long as they didn’t get caught.
  • public enemy number one
  • Corruption remains in full public view and has yet to be stamped out.
  • Businesses sell substandard goods with impunity (処罰ナシに) ; squatters (違法滞在者) auction off land that doesn’t belong to them.
  • Corruption will be rooted out.
  • status quo
  • We have to arm children with right tools.
  • Children gravitate to audio and visual stimuli.
  • an inverted social order
  • discern the thin line between fair and foul
※  問4は実に妙な出題で、本テキストの最終段落にて 「リベリア、そしてアフリカ全土の未来を担う子供達は、社会の不正との戦いにおける手付かずの兵器庫なのだ」 との言を紹介しているにも拘らず、本テキストのタイトル選択としては「不正との戦いの真っ只中にある子供たち」が正答、というのが最大手予備校の公表解答 案である。どうして誰も疑義を唱えないのだろう?

これは大良問である!人間の人間たる自意識は生物学的に「どこに」所在するのかと問いかけるテキスト、文面こそアッサリしているが文学部ばりの巨視的(学際 的)な飛躍力も求める。よって全受験生に読解を奨めたい素晴らしいテキストである。(なお最大手予備校の講評がメチャクチャなので参考にせず、出来るだけ 自分でじっくりと読みこなして欲しい。)
  • breakthrough
  • The problem of consciousness is not cracked. ”problem””crack”が洒落た表現である。)
  • Humans will learn soon ... which genes make them different from Neanderthals : the core, in other words, of what it is to be Homo Sapiens.
  • the politically loaded term
  • Researchers will find out how much of an individual’s likely success in life is predetermined by his genetic make-up, and how much can be enhanced by education.
  • grab the headlines (意訳したい)
  • Manipulating brains will be possible through methods other than tinkering(ちょっといじる) with the initial genetic blueprint.
  • Human’s uniqueness is explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations whose function is, at bottom, just survival and reproduction.
  • The biological origins of the co-operativeness and, on occasion, extraordinary self-sacrifice that characterise humans and have led to their ascent are less easy to elucidate(明白にする).
  • (The study is on) how simplified models of economists dictate that people ought to behave.
  • Even religion is not off limits to students of human evolution. (ほとんどテキスト末尾のこの箇所も実に深淵な一文、出来ればここの真意を問うて欲しかったくらいだ。)

  • intriguing
  • The struggle ... is a drain on precious emotional and physical resources.
  • conflict between disapproving parents and rebellious lovers
  • devoted investment bankers or lawyers (ここでの“devoted"は形容表現)
  • Conflict arises when a daughter settles for a partner who provides less support than her parents would ideally like.
  • The parents’ daughter has the same chance of raising a family and having children who pass down their genes as the daughters married to wealthy bankers or lawyers. (一部省略、改編しつつ抜粋)
  • The daughter gets the mate she’s most attracted to, and because her parents supply what her husband can’t, she profits from more help than her siblings. (ここらあたりまでついて来れれば、本テキストの骨子もかなりクリアになるはず。)
  • A daughter may be better equipped than her parents to identify a guy who has good genes and will give her more children.
  • Evolutionary success was ranked according to the number of children the daughters had who lived to reproductive age.
  • Parents prioritise social class and family background for a son-in-law.
  • help people identify mates with compatible genes
  • A daughter’s strategy of marrying despite parental disapproval will lead to marital happiness.
  • Defying parents when it comes to choosing mates isn’t just a matter of the heart – or of misbehaviour – but one of genes and survival.
I believe that a vacation is the time when we are free from any duties or responsibilities we are usually on. And a destination to visit while spending that free time should be out of any IT-devised reaches where job fellows and their gadgets could not bother in. Combined, the best destination on our vacations will be, in some ways, deep tropical forests or far north/south hell where IT antennas are placed so scarcely that we can almost shut out any bits of daily business off our free time spending.

  • To examine the effect of education on longevity, we referred to the results of an old study of about 1,500 subjects born around 1910.
  • The better-educated were more productive as they aged.
  • better motivated to navigate life’s personal and social challenges
  • inherent characteristics

化された診断分析技法に過度に依存すると、疾病の真因誤解から誤診に至る恐れがあるよ、と説き、特に後半は文学部ばりの凝った文面も含むとはいえ論旨把握は 易しい ─ 但し、疾病の原因分析から治療まで段階的に把握しないと、正誤判断の設問で失敗する恐れアリ、出来れば段落ごとに要約メモをとりたい。
  • impotence
  • the development of the randomised “controlled trial” and other statistical tools
  • distinguish therapies that worked and those that had little to offer beyond the body’s own recuperative powers (治癒力)
  • Which medication is appropriate, and for how long and at what dosage should it be administered ?
  • Despite concerns and lamentations about “cookbook medicine”, the treatment guidelines, which are based on an ever-growing foundation of evidence, have been amply demonstrated to save lives. (ここでの “cookbook medicine” は面白い表現で、以降の”the treatment guidelines” ただの経験則じゃないかと皮肉ったニュアンスであり、つまりこの箇所全文を理解して主旨が初めて分かるもの。) 
  • benefit from the thoughtful application of what has been shown to be the most effective therapy for their particular condition 
  • As treatment becomes more standardised, the most complex and important decision-making will take place at the level of the diagnosis. (第5段落におけるこの文章の真意は理解必須、ここから本テキストにおける重大な警告メッセージに進む。) 
  • pneumonia (昔は疾病頻度の高かった病気、比較論でよく引用される) 
  • X-ray 
  • The symptoms are less suggestive. 
  • cases in which the narrative of disease strays off the expected path 
  • cases where the usual suspects all seem to have alibis, and the diagnosis is elusive (この箇所はまず文字通りの意味から、本旨で述べたいことを理解すべし。) 
  • unravel the mystery 
  • pick apart the tangled threads of illness

  • “over-the-counter” reading glasses
  • One of my friends teased me for resisting my age.
  • A certain sense of responsibility and serious-mindedness sets them (the elderly) apart from young adults with their carefree attitudes ...
  • exemplify
  • height of work productivity
  • prolong people’s physical wellness beyond chronological age
  • the onset of the social dimensions of middle age – marriage, reproduction, career development – is delayed to the late 30s or early 40s.
We all must establish and share universal legitimacy to determine consistent formats of our human civilizations. The legitimacy must carry wide and flexible capacities to deal with any physical (materialistic) challenges, in case our future generations face those hard questions tomorrow. To these solutions with sustaining our consistent legitimacy, scientific wisdom and features must be placed on the top priority for ages, then we should confirm that various ranges of science must be seamlessly handed over to our children.
無理やりに "文明のlegitimacy" という語をおきつつ、なんだか理想論で終わってしまったが、つまり ─ 子供たちに伝えたいのは社会存続の普遍的原理としての正当性であり、将来にわたる如何なる物理的な脅威にも対応しうる広範で柔軟な正当性を真摯に確立すべきである。それを可能とするのは科学の知識と能力であって、よって科学こそ将来世代に渡すべきものである ─ といったことを書いてみた。

  • The three “R”s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) ... became the government’s rallying cry.
  • urge citizens to rein in their rampant consumerism by cutting back on unnecessary purchases
  • a flulike pandemic
  • Moviegoers might find fantasies like these (imaginary films) entertaining, but for a microbe (微生物) hunters like me ... , the truth about the potential of global outbreaks is gripping enough.
  • contagion
  • I devised the imaginary virus that wrecks havoc in the film.
  • respiratory disease
  • quarantine
  • help address the situation
  • assess biosurveillance capabilities
  • road map 
  • mine nontraditional data sources like the Internet
  • invest in a state-of-the-art work force (state-of-the-art は注釈付きとなっているが、このくらいは常識で知っておきたいもの)
  • inspire young people to pursue carriers

これはなかなかの良問!主客のかなり入り組んだテキストとなっており、スリル満点の論理パズルであって速読は禁物 ─ だが、やはり理系学部の出題らしく事項対比の明快なメッセージであり、骨格を理解すれば全貌の把握は容易。
要するに ─ 自身の直接経験と他者からの引用情報について、英語よりも日本語の方が両者の差異を生真面目に表現する傾向が強く、英語表現の場合には後者を前者に重ね合わせて語る傾向が高い、と言う主旨。
  • an applied linguist
  • anecdote
  • startled by the actions or utterances of a person
  • second- or third-hand information
  • seemingly inconsequential tag-on expressions ( tag-on のニュアンスを吟味要、付加されたとの意であり、ここで勝負の大半が決する)
  • English speakers might view the use of these “hearsay evidential” (ある事実を間接的に聞いたに過ぎないという表現) as the Japanese speaker “pussyfooting” (ウダウダと言う).... distancing themselves from the veracity(真実性) of the information imparted, and from the source of the knowledge.(この数行に亘る箇所を理解すればテキストの本旨をほぼ把握したも同然、たしかに難度高い語彙も現れるが、何のための添付注釈リストか?? なお、themselves は誰を指すか?) 
  • One research article ... sums up the Japanese impression that English speakers underuse explicit phrases that demonstrate the information they are talking about is not based on firsthand knowledge. (この程度は一気に理解すべきだが、あえてヒントを記せば explicit phrases demonstrate ... しているのである) 
  • fill in a questionnaire 
  • the degree of intimacy and perceived reliability of the source of information 
  • often-unconscious decision whether to unambiguously tag information as heresay 
  • Making such a firm cognitive distinction between oneself and others contradicts claims that Japanese are less individualistic than Westerners.
あなたが“feel confident” になれるものについて、書きなさい、という英作文課題。
これは実はかなり難しい課題であって、その理由は どういうconfidence について問うているのか定義が提示されていないから。
とはいえ普通は自身の能力についての confidence を記すべきであろうから、たとえば以下のようになるのでは?
(解答私案)  I am always so confident in promoting some products that are unknown or even novel commodities to possible customers. I like to boost those opportunities with the customers by conceptual generalisation of my promoting commodities, motivating the customers’ basic demands to those items. As the customers come up with their practical interests, I will stress majorly in my items’ second-to-none hardware qualifications, which have been successfully materialised by those products specifications, never ending up in just the price negotiations. I am confident that this can be the best way to land on the so-called win-win trades.

2011 - I 
  • Most people never figure out how to leverage their fingertips.
  • a gold mine
  • The tuition was much more than his parents could afford.
  • a dorm room
  • I returned Coke bottles for the five cents deposits to buy food with.
  • Much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition was priceless.
  • The Macintosh computer has multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.
  • Steve Jobs collected diverse experience independent of their short term benefits.
2011 – II 
  • Recharging with a shallow nap offers no mental boost in recalling information.
  • the brain’s ability to lay down and consolidate memories
  • a neurological change
  • an optimal productivity
2011 - III 
  • Parents today bend over backward to protect their children’s self esteem.
  • We’re raising a generation of undisciplined narcissists.
  • It won’t be pretty when children’s sense of entitlement crashes into the unforgiving real world.
  • The rhetoric is uniform.
  • The central premise is that the problem’s dimensions are unprecedented.
  • The author concedes that kids have always been pleasure-seekers.
  • indictment
  • revelation
  • anecdoteMy efforts to track down national data yielded absolutely nothing. 
  • Many parents these days are permissive or punitive.
    Various practices produce certain outcomes, but researchers shrug when asked how prevalent those practices are. 
  • A verbal reward is just the mirror image of punishment – a tool for eliciting obedience. 
  • Some separate complaints lump together. 
  • omnipotent children 
  • Unlike her peers, she has actually collected some data – which have received largely uncritical media attention. 
  • They score higher on questionnaires intended to measure narcissism. 
  • methodology 
  • Why would we gravitate to these beliefs in the first place? 
  • Neither logic nor evidence support the widely accepted charge that we’re too easy on our children. 
  • political spectrum

2010 - II 
  • Sensory information flowing into the brain fuels our perceptions, memories, intentions and actions.
  • Our sensations include those of gravitation and acceleration.
  • a complex mix of distinctly different sub-senses.
  • the ability to sense the motion, colour, form, brightness, texture and contrasts of objects
  • an auditory-visual illusion
  • Our brains impose different conscious perceptions on the same information registered by our sensory systems.
  • syllable
  • into the midst
  • The brain achieves a feat of image manipulation.
2010 - III 
  • remnant
  • the deposition of a bit of male pollen on the female flower
  • The plague hit a honeybee population that was already worn down.
  • A large insect attaches to bees and sucks their fluids.
  • erosion of health
  • You will hear a variety of hypotheses.
  • For a species that evolved with an off-season and a steady home, year-round migratory labour must be taxing.
  • insecticide
  • herbicide
  • syrup
  • nutrient
  • The list of plausible risk factors goes on.
  • We must take patches of agricultural land out of production, and restore them to natural habitat. 
  • monoculture 
  • a layer of tissue at the back of the eye

2009 - II 
  • retrospect
  • She played the trombone, and missed one note – she cracked a G.
  • The jury were stunned.
  • The trombone is masculine.
  • in the flesh
  • a blood sample to measure her capacity for absorbing oxygen
  • A guest conductor of the orchestra’s performances singled her out for praise.
  • She played the most difficult passages in the trombone repertoire.
  • The orchestra refused her to pay on par with her male colleagues.
2009 - III 
  • The store was jam-packed with all the usual stuff, but no staples that I could spot anywhere.
  • fiasco
  • Researchers asked respondents to describe a situation in which they had committed some socially incorrect actions.
  • inept performance
  • rule violation
  • social scrape
  • premise

 2008 - II  
  • Religious persecution is at the root of people fleeing their country. 
  • Raise a fund in support of a good cause, such as a charity.
2008 - III
  • an invitation to speak at a gathering of librarians
  • members of the world-wide community of antiquarian booksellers
  • I produce this magazine virtually single-handed.
  • free-lance designer
  • A book enriches my soul and diverts me in an entertaining way.
  • British Council libraries got rid of their books altogether and replaced them with rows of computer terminals.
2008 – IV 
(本題は大良問! 個々の事象の偶発性と普遍性の見極めから一般法則化までの演繹プロセスを、丁寧に場合分けしつつ、科学的論証としての正当性を問うエッセイ。冷静に場合分けを見極めれば正答は導けるし、またそれだけの時間的な余裕もあるはず。
  • A famous account of scientific explanation to the original question was put forward by an American philosopher.
  • The scientific explanations have the logical structure of an argument, i.e. a set of premises followed by a conclusion.
  • His answer to the problem was three-fold.
  • The premises should entail the conclusion.
  • The argument should be a deductive one.
  • We cite the laws and particular facts. 
  • The converse is also true: every reliable prediction is potentially an explanation. 
  • things that do fit the covering law model, but intuitively do not count as genuine scientific explanation 
  • A body’s acceleration varies inversely with its mass. 
  • Sunlight is necessary for a plant to photosynthesise. 
  • the impact of radiation on skin cells 
  • Athens is always immersed in smog. 
  • The explanations were spelled out in full details. 
  • Explanation and prediction are symmetric.