2018/04/26

慶應 理工学部の英語(2018)

以下に記した英文の全体ないしは一部および単語は、慶應理工学部の最近10年分の一般入試出題から、特に「これは重要」と考えられるものを列記したもの。
(なお、主要な英文誌の掲載コラムなどから鑑みて特殊性が高いと思われるものは含みません。)
来春の入試本番に際して、自分がどの範疇の表現・語彙に強いのか、あるいは弱いのか、現時点の学力チェックシートのつもりで、辞書を用いずにどれだけ訳せるか試してみましょう。
さあ、頑張りましょう。


【 2018-I 】
テクノロジー論をやや引用しつつも損得論を導いていく、典型的なビジネスコラム ─ ということは第3段落の導入部でわかる。主語に名詞を押し込んだような頭でっかちな文構造や、少しバラついた動詞の態の用法など見れば、あまり整然とした文面とはいえないが、大意は連想し易いので、見慣れぬ単語にもひるむことなく一気に読み抜きたい。(ともあれ、例年の出題と比べて明らかに易しいテキストである。
  • An autonomous airplane reliable enough to be trusted by passengers and air-safety regulators could save not just on salaries but also on the cost of making sure that well-rested flight crews are united with their assigned planes.  (ここまで一文で記さずともよいのでは、とも察せられるが、ともかくこういうせっかちな英文もあるのだ。何が何をsaveしうるのか分かればよし。)
  • logistical problem
  • short-hop air service
  • niche  (この語はいまや全分野における汎用語であり、概念理解必須である。)
  • Hope springs eternal in tech land, and so does the tendency to promise big.  (第3段落の本箇所から、航空機の無人運転技術に対する疑義が始まってゆく。)
  • Even the most 'automated' flight is still subject to much human input and subjective decisions.  (第3段落〆の本文が、唯一の難所である。"subject to"に続いて "subjective decisions"と置かせる空欄補充に閃いたかどうか。)
  • a novelty ... as a way to prove and build the technologies
  • For some people, convenience might outweigh fear.
  • The company claims that its roboplane has already carried a passenger, and if it performs the feat in public, we'll let you know.
  • Benefit may offset safety concerns.

【 2018-II 】
短期かつ有形の事業利益を人生の主たる目的に据えた現行の教育システムは、世界の民主政治にとって大いなる脅威たりうる、と説くテキスト。メッセージは重大だが論旨があまりに単調にして冗長であるのが惜しい。あっという間に読みぬきたいもの。
  • a crises of massive proportions
  • Consequences for governments were profound if they (world leaders) did not find solutions.
  • Thirsty for national profit, nations, and their systems of education, are heedlessly discarding skills that are needed to keep democracies alive.  ("nations"の意味を理解すること。)
  • useless frills
  • profit motive
  • the ability to transcend local loyalties

【 2018-IV 】
例年どおりの空欄補充問題で、ほんの数行のテキストゆえ複雑な論理展開は無い。よって、日訳文を一気に読んでから語彙を充当すれば易しい。そんなことより、本テキストの主題はIoTであり、ここで引用されているシステムがどのようなものかを技術的に想起するセンスこそが理工学部の志望者によっては重要であろう。図案が提示されていればもっと楽しい出題たりえただろう。
  • Add Wi-Fi and a motion sensor to a light bulb and you have a remote alarm system.  (これがどのようなシステムか、想像するだけでもワクワクしてこないか?)
  • The (IoT) concept applies to web-connected devices such as thermostats, televisions and cars.
  • Security and economic concerns, and the inevitable teething pains that are inherent in any evolving technology, are moderating enthusiasm.



【 2017-I 】
トラウマは事象そのものの宿命的な属性ではなく、その事象の経験者自身の内に起こる場合が有るに過ぎない、そしてその内部化は、その事象経験者の逆境への耐性次第で回避可能であり、かつその方法は他者に伝授も出来る ─ といった主旨の論説。ただ、そもそもなぜ逆境への耐性に個人差が有るのか掘り下げて明示されてはおらず、どうも論旨が表層に留まっている印象が残る。
 (慶應や早稲田の他学部の出題英文も、語数制限との兼ね合いによるためか、論旨が精密さを欠くものが多い気がしてならない。)
  • the way your life unfolds
  • It's only when you're faced with obstacles, stress, and other environmental threats that resilience, or the lack of it, emerges : Do you succumb or do you surmount ? (ここに挙げられる "resilience" が本テキスト読解のキーワードのひとつだ。)
  • Do you conceptualize an event as traumatic, or an opportunity to learn and grow ?
  • coin a term
  • If you can find a way to construe that (sad) event as filled with meaning ...then it may not be seen as a trauma. (本テキストの最重要箇所、さてここの "construe" はビジネス法務などでは汎用語であり、論理的にどのような英文でも現れうるもの。ぜひ覚えておきたい。)
  • Stressful or traumatic events in and of themselves don't have much predictive power in terms of life outcomes. Living through adversity, be it endemic to your environment or an acute negative event, doesn't guarantee that you'll suffer going forward. (ここの "adversity" も本テキスト中に繰り返し現れるキーワード、文脈から読みとりたい。それから "guarantee" も論理的な真意を掴むこと。英単語の多くは特定方向に意味のベクトルが定まっているとは限らない。
  • We can make ourselves more or less vulnerable by how we think about things.
  • Teaching people to think of stimuli in different ways - to reframe them in positive terms ... changes how they experience and react the stimulus.
  • The training seems to have lasting effects.
※ ところで本テキスト中段ほどに現れる "Every frightening event, no matter how negative it might seem from the sidelines ...  にて、"sideline" の意味がどうもハッキリ分からないが、これは例えばグラフの horizontal line" の意で、これを下回ったマイナスの事象について語っているのであろうか?

【 2017-II 】
極めて易しい読解文。ただ、第2段落の "Animals are capable of being harmed - by feeling pain, fear, etc."  における "capable" の論理、また本テキストにて何度も現れる "because" の論理について、念のために留意方。

【 2017-III 】
  • What I like about my best friend is that we can always pick up things where we last left off.
  • I always feel like we're on the same wave length ... She is telepathic. ... Sounds very sci-fi ! (粋な表現だ、こういうヴォキャを使いまわせば理知的に聞こえる、かもしれない。)

【 2017-IV 】
  • A vehicle is levitated (浮動される) a short distance away from a "guideway (ここではガイド軌道の意) using magnets to create both lift and thrust.
  • Their (磁気活用の) non-reliance on friction means that acceleration and deceleration can surpass that of wheeled transport vehicles. ( "acceleration" から "deceleration" を類推したい。)
  • Most of the power is used to overcome air resistance.



【 2016-I 】
物理学の基本であるエネルギーの不可逆変化(エントロピー増大)について、水分子の移動を例に挙げてユーモラスに説いたもの。もちろん理科の基礎教養であり、閃けばあっという間に論旨が分かるはず。となれば、設問はアホみたいに簡単。
  • thermal motion of all the atoms in the sea
  • In order to get that (thermal) energy organised, herded, to make it available for use, we have to have a difference in temperature. (物理の教科書の記述そのまんま。分からぬのなら慶應なんか受けるのやめなさい。)
  • The energy of the sea is a large amount, but we cannot harness it.
  • conservation of energy
  • analogy
  • In the irregular jigglings (振動) that energy can be spread about so uniformly that, in certain circumstances, there is no way to make more go one way than the other - there is no way control it any more. (ここも物理の教科書どおり。)
  • The energy ... will be distributed over all the parts (of the closed world) evenly until there is nothing left of one-way-ness, nothing left of the real interest of the world as we experience it.   (ここはちょっと端折って引用、"the closed world" がどんな系かも物理学センスでひらめく。ただし末尾の "the real interest of the world" は 本テキスト唯一の難度高い表現で、我々の社会における実質金利のように無から有が残ることはない、との洒落か。設問対象とされなくてよかった笑。)
※ 本問を難しいなどと評している英語関係者は理科の基礎教養すら無いのかしら。なお、本テキストの出典元は量子力学の巨人ファインマンで、ファインマンの言については数年前の早稲田理工英語でも引用されており、依然として大学入試英語のテキストとして重宝されている、と察する。

【 2016-II 】

ささやかな抽象度、やや冗長な文面、さらに設問[3]の出題形式まで国立大の入試英文に似ている。慶應理工の定番タイプといえるが、ただ本問のテキスト論旨は昨年までの発想転換は不要。
  • When it comes to grieving, scientist have observed that we are not so unique.
  • Wildlife biologists have amassed (収集した)so many firsthand accounts of animals caring for and mourning their dead. ("accounts" は最重要の多義語ゆえ徹底的に意味を考慮必須!)
  • The idea of animal grief is no longer as suspect as it once was.
  • frame their questions into hypothesis they can test
  • Grief must have an evolutionary history and confer some benefit. 
  • survive long enough to reproduce and pass genes to the next generations
  • weed out (これは同義語連想の対象だが、汎用表現でもある。)
  • wild baboon females who had lost either an infant or other closed relatives to a predator
  • stress hormone
  • grooming (a behavior that has both social and hygienic benefits) (ここは注釈付きだが、"grooming" は早稲田英語でノーヒントで出るくらいの汎用語でもある)
  • Mourning period is actually a neurobiological necessity.
  • form close bonds with another individual
  • Stress can inflict "microdamage" in the key areas of the brain, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex ... . (脳の部位をあらわす常識語、文系の高2だってこんな程度の知識はある。)
  • Brain is not a static organ;  it  responds dynamically to life's events by pruning away neurons that are no longer needed and sprouting (発芽する) new ones. Rewriting takes time and energy. (ここの "rewrite" が分かればよし。)
  • brain trauma
  • Many animals are more capable of grief than we have given them credit for. (この "credit" も最重要の多義語、文脈に応じて理解必須!)
  • reenergize the brain
  • check out from social interaction (この "check out" は本年の出題で最も難しい笑。しかし観念を是非理解しておこう。)

以下、【大問 3 - 6 】まで極端に易しいので省略。



【 2015-I 】
理系も文系も問わず、いまや早稲田の入試英語でも定番の一つになりつつある電池/給電システムについての記事。ただし本テキストでは "energy storage" と "batteries" のシステム上の補完あるいは排他の関係がやや判りにくい。(最近とみに考えるのだが、ITや電気システムについての英文出題では、何らかのアブストラクト図案を併せた方がヨリ発展的な英語学習を触発するのではなかろうか。)
  • a breakthrough in cost and performance
  • electric grid
  • Power generated at power plants needs to match what's being consumed at home and businesses.
  • If there's a spike in demand, power plants need to crank out more electricity and dial it back down when demand subsides at night.
  • During times of peak demand, (energy) storage can deliver power in the place of fossil fuel plants. The technology can firm up the variable output from wind and solar farms or augment (増大させる) the capacity of maxed-out substations that deliver power to local neighborhoods. (ここいらは電力事業形態の新規可能性のひとつ、コンセプトをサッと想起出来るくらいでないと見通しは暗い。)
  • For multi-hour (energy) storage, there are compelling reasons to pursue mechanical storage systems over electrochemical batteries.
  • expensive materials such as lithium or cobalt, which can be subject to supply constraints
  • (Batteries') performance improvements are often incremental.
  • intellectual property
  • the gold standard (知っておきたい成語)
  • hydroelectric turbine
  • Pumped hydro (power) stations can deliver big bursts of power for several hours, allowing grid operators to fill gaps in electricity supply without having to tap fossil fuel-burning power plants. (ここも或る energy storage のシステムコンセプトを描写している。なお "tap" は一般誌では汎用性の高い動詞である。)
  • mountainous terrain
  • The other proven, low-cost bulk storage method is compressed air energy storage, in which compressors pump air into underground caverns. (ここもやはり或るシステムコンセプトの概説、イメージ出来て欲しい。末尾の"caverns" は洞窟の意。)

【2015-II】
法学部や医学部および早稲田理工などでも時おり出題されるタイプの分析力課題で、多くの受験生に一度は挑ませたい良問である。抽象性の高い思考活動として "creativity" とその内にて発動されうる "insight" とを挙げつつ、総括的な定義なきままにこれらを厳密に峻別させるもの、やや難度高いが、引用されている実験の意図を理解すれば全貌も理解出来よう。おまけにわざわざ論旨要約まで付いている。なお米ニューヨーカー誌からの抜粋テキストである。
  • cognitive neuroscientist
  • Creativity seems to come when insight is combined with hard work of analytical processing.
  • In the field of psychology, there's been a certain haziness surrounding the definition of creativity that has eluded a precise formulation.
  • "We have a temporal (時間上の) marker that something just happened in the brain. I don't say that's all of creativity, but it's a central, identifiable component". When scientists examine insight in the lab, they are looking at what types of attention and thought processes lead to that moment of synthesis." (まとめて引用したが、この箇所で "insight" をどのように描写しているか?とりわけ末尾の "synthesis" は何と何についてのものか?)
  • If you feel stuck on a problem, are there tricks to get you through ?
  • shed light (on ...)
  • It turned out that if the subject looked directly at a word and focused on it ... she was thinking in analytical, convergent fashion, going through possibilities that made sense and systematically discarding those that didn't. (ここは或る連想ゲームにおける被験者の描写、ここでは "analytical" と "convergent" に要着目だ。)
  • Your state of attention both before you get a problem and when you're solving it matters.

【 2015-VI 】
  • Nerves and the electrical wires needed to regulate the electronics in a prosthesis (義肢) transmit entirely different kind of signals.
  • The linkage would require implanting wires and other kinds of electronics into the body, which normally perceives such implants as foreign and thus unleashes attacks that would generate scar tissue around an interface and disrupt its functioning.
  • nanotechnology and tissue engineering
  • inborn ability




 2014-I 
昨年同様文化論の出題、文学的な隠喩も目立つが、今回はextrovert / introvert すなわち外交性/内向性という相反した人間の性質表現の引用(これらの語は半ば汎用語)、二項対立の明瞭な論旨ゆえ、全体像も捉え易かったのではと察する。
なお第3段落の”our tolerance”が本テキストではとくに婉曲的な表現、誰がどういう人間に何に対して寛容たりうるのかを理解されたい。
  • fool themselves
  • layoff
  • inheritance that frees introverts to spend time as they like
  • jolt introverts into taking stock of their true natures (“take stock of”は出題対照の熟語だがこんなレベルまで覚えてたらキリが無い、ここは「己自身のnatureを…する行為」と捉えれば文意が分かりそうなもの。)
  • omnipresent belief
  • The archetypal (典型的な) extrovert prefers action to contemplation, risk-taking to heed-taking, certainty to doubt.
  • socialise in group
  • All too often we admire one type of individual – the kind who’s comfortable “putting himself out there”. (この”put himself out there”の意図が分かれば、本テキスト後半~末尾までの論旨が全部了解出来るはず。)
  • technologically gifted loners who launch companies in garages (ゲイツやジョブスなどを暗に指している)
  • Introverts are discounted because of a trait that goes to the core of who they are.
  • oppressive standard to which most of us feel we must conform
  • Velocity of speech counts as well as volume : we rank fast talkers as more competent and likable than slow ones.
  • grave mistake
  • quiet and cerebral (知的な) people who knew how to tune in to their inner worlds and the treasures to be found there
 2014-II 
  • fertilisation
  • In the lab, scientists simulate acidification by pumping extra CO2 bubbles through seawater tanks. (CO2は当たり前として、”acidification”acidからノーヒントで閃かなければ、本テキストは何書いているのか判らない。)
  • Experimenters lowered seawater pH by 0.4. (イオンが分からないならもう理工学部の受験なんかやめちゃえって。)
  • The sperm do not remain viable for very long.
  • turbulent ocean
  • mortality
  • susceptible to predators
  • reproductive output
  • organism
  • The fish we prefer to eat depend on an abundance of specific copepods(小型のエビ類) to support the fish that support them. (ここが本テキストで最高に理知的で凝った表現、有機生命体の半分が死滅する一定環境条件、との文脈から是非とも真意をつかむべし。)
  • Several species of fish maintain a relatively large stockpile of buffers and store extra oxygen in their tissue, which is handy because H+ ions interfere with the blood’s ability to absorb oxygen from the water.
  • geologic record
  • human-induced stress
※ なお、問2は第5段落を総括する一語、ここでは生態系の“end”が正答のようだが、生態系の”failure”としてはいけないのか?(それまでの段落で何らかの生物種における生命機能の不具合について語っているので、やはりここは”end”でよいのかな?)
※※ また、問4の整序問題だが、僕の私案では、「海の参加がカキの死滅をもたらしたのでは、とにらんだ科学者たちが (sending) some oyster growers scrambling babies enough to find (to stay in business.) としてみた、つまり scrambling babies なるものを oyster growersなる業者に送ったとしたわけで、科学者たちが確かめようとしたことはoyster growers が事業継続出来るかどうか、ではなかったのか? 
さて一方、最大手予備校の公表正答によれば (sending) some oyster growers scrambling to find enough babies (to stay in business.) となっているが、これだとoyster growers に対して送ったモノが判然としない…いやoyster growers とは業者ではなく何かの装置なのだろうか? 
─ ここのところ面白いので別途追求してみたい。

 2014-IV 
  • Misleading graphs and diagrams distort the underlying data and encourage readers to accept false arguments.
  • Only if our industry continues to expand can it create enough new jobs to make up for those that will be eliminated by outsourcing.
 2014-VI 
  • No material available at the time had the required properties to feasibly construct such a cable. (また”property”だ、この語は今年の早慶英語の流行語なのかな?) 
  • carbon nanotube (nano~は工業用語としては常識である)
  • strength-to-mass ratio
  • fabrication
  • micrometeor impact
  • low-Earth-orbit
  • debris




 2013-I 
超新星群の発見から銀河のサイズ推定、宇宙時間の論に至るまで学術的/技術的な試行錯誤を紹介した記事。
物理学や地学あたりの素養・センスを絶妙に触発する良文テキストだ、が、最終段落末尾における大研究者の研究陣参画にかかる設問はアンフェアではないか? (文意そのものに明示されてない事実を排他的に選択回答させている。)
  • physicist
  • robotic telescope
  • supernovae (超新星supernovaの複数形、だが本タームを知らなくともテキスト論旨を読みぬくことは出来る)
  • hypothetical star which triggered mass extinctions on Earth by steering comets toward the inner solar system
  • observatory
  • long, winding road to historic discovery
  • map the distribution of galaxies across the cosmos
  • A white dwarf star (白色矮星) draws too much mass from its orbiting companion (これは連星(伴星?)) and explodes from the pressure.
  • simple equation
  • An astronomer who gazes upon the most distant type Ias (Ia型超新星) is, in effect, gazing through a time machine – seeing the universe as it was billions of years ago. (この”time machine” の真意を見抜くこと!)
  • answer the sceptics
  • establish a collaboration with British and Australian astronomers
  • access the telescope’s imaginary via the Internet
  • gravitate
  • subatomic particles
  • rosy prospects
 2013-II 
本問は女性による文化論のためか淡白な文化論と見られがちだが、実際は特に第4段落の論旨が真逆からの説明となっており、本年度の慶應の出題においてもかなり高度な論理パズルといえる。
  • approach new perceptions by measuring them against our past experiences
  • brand-new
  • the world leads us astray
  • absentmindedly
  • The joke was fleeting and not particularly well thought out.
  • He didn’t expect me to be blond, since he was looking for a fellow Jew.
  • There is no point in blaming those who expect the world to continue as  it has been in the past, but we shouldn’t let anyone off the hook, either. (この文中の”hook” は何を意味するか要理解)
  • the narrowly prescribed roles we were consigned to in the past
  • Will women change the norms – establish new expectations for the roles they come to fill in ?
  • ramification
 2013-III 
消費税率についての軽妙な会話、とくに末尾の謎かけが洒落ている (慶應受けるなら理科系とか文科系とかくだらない難癖つけるなかれ、こんなもの大人なら常識論)
  • Nothing in life is certain but death and taxes.
  • the proposed tax hike
  • austerity or stimulus (ここで財政指針としてのausterityは一般社会では汎用語だが、stimulusの反意語だと類推しても意味くらい分かるはず)
  • tax revenues
  • necessity or luxury
 2013-IV 
  • tense the muscle
  • hymn
  • fierce competition to decode DNA


 2013-IV 
  • A Manhattan-size meteorite travelling through space at about 11 kilometers per second punched through the sky.
  • The dust lofted by the impact blocked out the sun, bringing years of wintry conditions everywhere, wiping out many terrestrial species.
  • ascendancy
  • orbit
  • celestial object on a collision path with our Earth




 2012-I
  • Neanderthals (ネアンデルタール人) disappeared from the fossil record.
  • leave no descendants and no detectable contribution to the modern human gene pool
  • intense climatic shift
  • rule out (動詞として)
  • Neanderthals likely matured somewhat faster than early modern humans and thus would have taken less time to reproduce.
  • vulnerabilities
  • elusive small mammals
  • Our ancestors’ greatest advantage was demographic.
  • fuel the great dispersal of our ancestors throughout the world
  • upheaval
 2012-II 
お奨めの良問で、知覚共有能力の物理的限界について述べたもの、とくに人間ではなくpain の側に主体をおいて論じているところがやや抽象性の高い科学エッセイとなっており、文学部や法学部、あるいは東大やお茶の水女子大あたりの出題にも近い。
  • The events happening within the interior of that person’s body may seem to have the remote character of some deep subterranean (地下の) fact.
  • invoke
  • analogies
  • split between one’s sense of one’s own reality and the reality of other persons
  • For the person in pain, “having pain” may come to be thought of as the most striking example of what it is to have certainty, while for the other person, “Hearing about pain” may exist as the primary model of what it is to have doubt. (一気に記したが、本文における certainty  doubt の論理的対置が分かれば本テキストの全貌もほぼ掴めようもの。)
  • Whatever pain achieves, it achieves in part through its unshareablitiy (非共有性), and it ensures this unshareability through its resistance to language.
  • Language runs dry.
  • severe and prolonged pain that may accompany cancer or burns or stroke
  • the pain comes into our midst
 2012-III 
  • demise
  • denounce
 2012-V 
  • Be polite but not submissive.
  • Angry at the accusation, he calmly but indignantly demanded to see his lawyer.
 2012-VI 
  • The rapid dissemination of information
  • Seismology (これは地震学という意味だが、seismic wave あたりの語は汎用語でもある)




 2011-I 
  • How could one of the ancient world’s great civilisations simply dissolved ? Early speculation centred on sudden catastrophe, perhaps volcanism or ... (ここは敢えて二文まとめて引用だが、特に speculation の意味を理解されたい)
  • drought
  • the prolonged decline
  • As resources grew scarce, the kings lost their divine luster and the confidence of their subjects.
  • Instability and desperation in turn fuelled highly destructive wars.
  • The Maya had entrusted their religious and temporal well-being to their god-kings.
  • The leaders displayed their might and majesty in elaborate rituals and pageants..., inscribed on stone, murals(壁画) and ceramics.
  • lavish arts
  • Growing populations, an expanding nobility, and rivalry between the city-states strained the limits of the environment. (city-state は社会科の基本用語で「都市国家」だが、このまともな定義は大抵の社会科教師にも出来ない。ただ民族統一による領域国家よりは遥かに小さい。)
  • Maya farmers were well schooled in sophisticated techniques designed to get maximum production from delicate tropical soils.
  • monoculture farming (この程度は社会科で習ったはず)
  • one staple food crop that could be accumulated and stored for hard times or for trade (ここでの”staple”2009年大問6でも同旨で引用されている)
  • Maya society was growing dangerously top-heavy.
  • A king who couldn’t meet the requirements of his relatives risked offending them.
  • The kings strove to outdo their neighbours.
  • wars to exact tribute in forced labour from fallen enemies
  • falter
  • hypothesis
  • peace agreement
 2011-II 
名詞(とくにここでは人名)の定義や由来がつらつらと続く退屈な英文。大意は簡単なのだが、汎用性の低い主題に付き合わされるのが意外とキツイ。早稲田の理工や法もこういうのを出題して地道な分析力(と忍耐力?)を問う。
  • pun uri ‘melon’, a symbol of summer, with kuri ‘chestnut’, a symbol of autumn (ここでのpunは動詞、汎用語ではあるが学生には厳しいか?)
  • artless verse
  • semi-settled way of life
  • In the remains of their habitations, archaeologists have found underground storage pits.
  • Trees on which they grow nearby were tended or nurtured as a form of early agriculture.
  • carbohydrate
  • loanword
  • surname (これは学生でも知ってるかな?)
  • the commander of Japanese Imperial Army forces
  • antiquity
  • edibility
  • walled district
 2011-III 
  • What is it that you and your organisation find so objectionable about globalised sport?
  • Our opposition is quite specific.
  • partisan hysteria
  • re-channel human competitiveness from the bloody battlefield to the sports arena
  • shamelessly hyped myth (この動詞hypeはとてつもない汎用語であり、掲載していない単語帳などは破棄すべきである)
  • benefit corporate interests
  • offer no more than a momentary, drug-like distraction to hundreds of millions of spectators
  • ski down a slope at breakneck speed
  • inflammable
 2011-IV 
  • humanoid robots
  • The boiling point of water is 100 degrees centigrade at standard pressure.
  • a high-pressure system over the Pacific Ocean
 2011-VI 
  • Place plane P1 parallel to plane P2.
  • Electric vehicles reduce emissions of carbon dioxide.
  • hybrid cars (ノーヒントでもこのくらいは知ってないと話にならない)




 2010-I 
米ニューヨーカー誌から抜粋の、脳のヒラメキ機能ついての小気味よいテキスト。論理展開は医学部出題ほどには錯綜してはおらず単線的、とはいえ実証例において抽象表現がやや多い。
  • The brain lavishes the scarce resource of attention on a single problem.
  • Once the brain is sufficiently focused, the cortex needs to relax in order to seek out the more remote association in the right hemisphere, which will provide the insight. (“cortex”は大脳皮質の意、早慶受験レベルでは頻出語となりつつあり、本テキスト全体で大脳皮質の意義が分かればinsightをもたらすための機能も分かる、よってこの繋ぎのwhich が何を受けているかも判断出来よう。)
  • cognitive neuroscientist
  • The drowsy brain is unwound and disorganised, open to all sorts of unconventional ideas.
  • inhibit the sort of creative connections
  • sudden breakthroughs
  • a control group
  • Schizotypal (統合失調型の) subjects have enhanced right-hemisphere function.
  • let one’s mind wander
  • insight into non-Euclidean geometry (EuclidPoincare同様に知っていて当たり前の数学者名である)
  • The idea came to me, without anything in my former thoughts seeming to have paved the way for it.
  • verify the idea
  • Poincare credited his sudden mathematical insights to “unconscious work”, an ability to mull over the mathematics.
  • deadlock
  • If inspiration struck, he would scribble equations on cocktail napkins.
  • We are wide awake.
  • W should focus on specifics rather than the whole picture in order to gain insights into things. (本文はむろんテキスト論旨には反するが、”specifics”と “whole picture”の対照を理解されたい。)
 2010-II 
  • The Chronicle of Japan (固有名詞でもあるが、”chronicle”は知っておくべき汎用語でもある)
  • court officials
  • punishment from the gods for the introduction of Buddhism
  • smallpox (これは現代性はあまり無いが自然科学における汎用語)
  • dedicate
  • calamity
  • the Great Buddha statue
  • ward off the disease
  • blister
  • the list of prominent figures in Japanese history who may have succumbed to smallpox
  • cripple
  • vaccinate
  • The battle against the dread scourge was far from over, but at lease the tide has turned. (特に最後の”tide”はここでは何を指すか考えたい。)
 2010-III 
  • ideological motives
  • controversial
  • a deep-seated resentment (on the part of some) toward what is the mainstream culture (この ”on the part of some” をちゃんと日訳していない参考書類があるが、「…という人も居る」くらいの意味、全体の訳としてはここを外してみれば判りやすいか。)
  • Those in the bilingual bureaucratic establishment have spent millions and millions of dollars on their utopian social-engineering schemes, and naturally wish to spend millions more.  (最終文のこの箇所、いったい誰がなぜカネを使いたがっているのか要考慮、ここは常識力が無ければ理解し難いかも。)
 2010-IV 
  • casual attitude to work
  • spread of new type of flu






 2009-I 
女性エッセイストによる軽妙な家族論(会話機能論?)で、文学的な表現はなかなか楽しいが論旨展開が曖昧、ゆえに却って総論をつかみにくいかも。
  • Why does talk in the family so frequently go in circles, leaving us tied up in knots ?
  • the workings of everyday talk
  • Politicians pepper their speeches with the phrase “family values”.
  • motive
  • We excuse behaviour we would otherwise not tolerate with the all-forgiving comment, “Well, they’re family”.
  • The coin has another side.
  • Members of our family ... find us wanting.
  • The arguments get as tangled as uncontrollable vines.
  • We stand a better chance of working things out without working each other over. (ちょっと凝った表現だが、“out””over”の違いなどと熟語に拘わるよりも、”things””each other”の違いによって文意を察するべきだ。)
  • disgrace
  • apathy
  • Family represents a sense of attachment.
※ なおこの大問における(3)の充当語彙として、市販解説書では”foundation”が正答である由を説いている ─ が、直後の段落で「家族とうまくやっていけば世の中でもうまくやっていける」と論旨が続き、これつまり「家族なるものを知っていれば」と大括りに解釈すれば、この(3)”comprehension”を充てても正答じゃないか、と僕なりに考える。

 2009-II 
予備校や市販参考書などでは意図的に黙殺しているのかもしれないが、本問は早慶出題英語のうちでも慶應SFCと並んで最も難しい類に入るであろう出題。あくびの発生と誘発のメカニズムについて述べた学術的かつ実証的な論説で、特に文中の”stimulus”, “detector”、さらに末尾箇所の”properties”な どがどこに存在する如何なる「機能」を指すのか、厳正な理解が必須である。更に後半部は観念の動詞化や名詞化も目立ち慶應らしさ十分、何とか読み通せばそ れだけで正答し得る大雑把な出題方式が救いか。ともかくあらゆる受験生に一度は精読させてみたい冒険的な課題であり、異種の良問とも言えよう。
  • The legendary infectiousness of yawning can be confirmed with simple observation.
  • contagion (この語は注釈抜きでも読み取るべき必須単語)
  • social biology
  • quantify
  • I tested the contagiousness of yawning by exposing subjects to a five minute series of thirty videotaped repetition of a male adult yawning.
  • Unlike the response of a reflex (反射運動) to a stimulus, the visual stimulus was not followed by a short and predictable latency period (反応時間).
  • The yawning face is a sign stimulus, which activates an innate mechanism that releases the fixed action pattern of the yawn.
  • The subject’ yawn detector was neither colour nor movement dependent.
  • The usually animate stimulus was presented as a still image of the yawner in mid-yawn.
  • potent in prompting yawns
  • be able to engineer a supranomal (正常域外の) stimulus
  • The plot thickened.
  • the gaping mouth
  • Yawning faces that had been edited to mask the mouth were just as effective in producing yawns as the intact face (顔全体).
  • Complementary data showed that the disembodied yawning mouth was no more effective in evoking yawns than the control smile. (“disembodied”は「embodyされていない」との意として理解したい。また最後のcontrolは control groupと同旨の用法)
  • This incidental contribution to etiquette research suggests that shielding your mouth is a polite but futile gesture that will not prevent the passing of your yawn to others. (第5段落のこの箇所、”This incidental contribution” が何を指すのか文脈全体から理解必須)
  • Nature conspires to spread yawns.
  • the yawn-induction procedure
  • The criterion was relaxed.
  • hiccup
  • Synthesising a gaping mouth of just the right size that opened and closed at just the right rate would not produce the perfect, irresistible stimulus.
  • Otherwise neutral stimuli can acquire yawn-inducing properties through association. (この”properties” は一般通念で、実在する物件を表すが、ここでは何を指すか留意方。)
  • My reputation has conferred a curious kind of charisma. (“confer” は出来れば知っておきたい動詞。)
 2009-III 
  • German alchemists perfected techniques for refining precious metals from other ores.
  • Galileo begged Rome’s indulgence for his support of a Copernican system in which the Earth orbited the Sun. (ここでの”indulgence””patience”と同義)
  • Technological advances can cause factual data to become outdated within a short time: yet, students should focus on reasoning skills, not facts. (本問の解説にて “yet” が間違いで “therefore” にすべきだとある。しかし、「…それでもなお、最新事実データを追いかけるのではなく…」という論旨でつなぐのなら”yet”でも構わないと考えられる。)


 2009-IV 
  • something to anchor your memories to
  • a vast array of memories
  • How far did you find yourself playing the young immigrant role of mediating between your parents and what to them was much more of an alien culture ? (少し構文がとりにくいが、”mediate” する対象がbetween  andでつながれている。)
  • Do you see yourself as being wholly British or are there elements in your sensibility you can separate out as being more Japanese ?
 2009-VI 
  • Rice futures have more than doubled since last August. (ここでの”futures”は先物価格、つまり現物出来以前にリスクを負って定めておく売買成約額のこと。学生向けとしては厳しい表現だが、観念として理解しておいて欲しい。)
  • synchronous growth that lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty
  • The rising prices are fuelled in part by speculators.
  • Expensive (food) staples are swiftly upsetting business plans. (“staple”は汎用語)
  • inflict widespread economic pain





 以上

謝辞

ここに提示の記事は、いずれも私自身の判断責任のもと編集・投稿したものです。

大半の投稿は学生など若年層向けを意図してやや平易な表現にて、一方では通俗性を極力回避しつつ、論旨の明示性を意図して書き綴りました。

あわせてまた、社会人の皆様にお読み頂くことも想定しつつ、汎用性高い観念知識を相応に動員しながら記した積もりです。

私なりの思考着想によるささやかな閃きが、皆様の諸活動にて何らかの光源たり得れば、望外の喜びであります。

山本